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  1. There has been growing research interest in developing methodology to evaluate healthcare centers' performance with respect to patient outcomes. Conventional assessments can be conducted using fixed or random effects models, as seen in provider profiling. We propose a new method, using fusion penalty to cluster healthcare centers with respect to a survival outcome. Without any prior knowledge of the grouping information, the new method provides a desirable data‐driven approach for automatically clustering healthcare centers into distinct groups based on their performance. An efficient alternating direction method of multipliers algorithm is developed to implement the proposed method. The validity of our approach is demonstrated through simulation studies, and its practical application is illustrated by analyzing data from the national kidney transplant registry.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 10, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 18, 2024
  3. Session types guarantee that message-passing processes adhere to predefined communication protocols. Prior work on session types has focused on deterministic languages but many message-passing systems, such as Markov chains and randomized distributed algorithms, are probabilistic. To implement and analyze such systems, this article develops the meta theory of probabilistic session types with an application focus on automatic expected resource analysis. Probabilistic session types describe probability distributions over messages and are a conservative extension of intuitionistic (binary) session types. To send on a probabilistic channel, processes have to utilize internal randomness from a probabilistic branching or external randomness from receiving on a probabilistic channel. The analysis for expected resource bounds is smoothly integrated with the type system and is a variant of automatic amortized resource analysis. Type inference relies on linear constraint solving to automatically derive symbolic bounds for various cost metrics. The technical contributions include the meta theory that is based on a novel nested multiverse semantics and a type-reconstruction algorithm that allows flexible mixing of different sources of randomness without burdening the programmer with complex type annotations. The type system has been implemented in the language NomosPro with linear-time type checking. Experiments demonstrate that NomosPro is applicable in differentmore »domains such as cost analysis of randomized distributed algorithms, analysis of Markov chains, probabilistic analysis of amortized data structures and digital contracts. NomosPro is also shown to be scalable by (i) implementing two broadcast and a bounded retransmission protocol where messages are dropped with a fixed probability, and (ii) verifying the limiting distribution of a Markov chain with 64 states and 420 transitions.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 9, 2024
  4. Solid-state reactions formed vertical carpets of 2D metal carbides and nitrides on metal substrates.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 24, 2024
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  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 25, 2023