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  1. Abstract Phonon Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) is a key tool for modeling multiscale phonon transport, which is critical to the thermal management of miniaturized integrated circuits, but assumptions about the system temperatures (i.e., small temperature gradients) are usually made to ensure that it is computationally tractable. To include the effects of large temperature non-equilibrium, we demonstrate a data-free deep learning scheme, physics-informed neural network (PINN), for solving stationary, mode-resolved phonon BTE with arbitrary temperature gradients. This scheme uses the temperature-dependent phonon relaxation times and learns the solutions in parameterized spaces with both length scale and temperature gradient treated as input variables. Numerical experiments suggest that the proposed PINN can accurately predict phonon transport (from 1D to 3D) under arbitrary temperature gradients. Moreover, the proposed scheme shows great promise in simulating device-level phonon heat conduction efficiently and can be potentially used for thermal design.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2023
  3. Camera-based heart rate measurement is becoming an attractive option as a non-contact modality for continuous remote health and engagement monitoring. However, reliable heart rate extraction from camera-based measurement is challenging in realistic scenarios, especially when the subject is moving. In this work, we develop a motion-robust algorithm, labeled RobustPPG, for extracting photoplethysmography signals (PPG) from face video and estimating the heart rate. Our key innovation is to explicitly model and generate motion distortions due to the movements of the person’s face. We use inverse rendering to obtain the 3D shape and albedo of the face and environment lighting from video frames and then render the human face for each frame. The rendered face is similar to the original face but does not contain the heart rate signal; facial movements alone cause pixel intensity variation in the generated video frames. Finally, we use the generated motion distortion to filter the motion-induced measurements. We demonstrate that our approach performs better than the state-of-the-art methods in extracting a clean blood volume signal with over 2 dB signal quality improvement and 30% improvement in RMSE of estimated heart rate in intense motion scenarios.

  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 11, 2023
  5. Yap, Pew-Thian (Ed.)
    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) with multiple, high b-values is critical for extracting tissue microstructure measurements; however, high b-value DWI images contain high noise levels that can overwhelm the signal of interest and bias microstructural measurements. Here, we propose a simple denoising method that can be applied to any dataset, provided a low-noise, single-subject dataset is acquired using the same DWI sequence. The denoising method uses a one-dimensional convolutional neural network (1D-CNN) and deep learning to learn from a low-noise dataset, voxel-by-voxel. The trained model can then be applied to high-noise datasets from other subjects. We validated the 1D-CNN denoising method by first demonstrating that 1D-CNN denoising resulted in DWI images that were more similar to the noise-free ground truth than comparable denoising methods, e.g., MP-PCA, using simulated DWI data. Using the same DWI acquisition but reconstructed with two common reconstruction methods, i.e. SENSE1 and sum-of-square, to generate a pair of low-noise and high-noise datasets, we then demonstrated that 1D-CNN denoising of high-noise DWI data collected from human subjects showed promising results in three domains: DWI images, diffusion metrics, and tractography. In particular, the denoised images were very similar to a low-noise reference image of that subject, more than the similaritymore »between repeated low-noise images (i.e. computational reproducibility). Finally, we demonstrated the use of the 1D-CNN method in two practical examples to reduce noise from parallel imaging and simultaneous multi-slice acquisition. We conclude that the 1D-CNN denoising method is a simple, effective denoising method for DWI images that overcomes some of the limitations of current state-of-the-art denoising methods, such as the need for a large number of training subjects and the need to account for the rectified noise floor.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 15, 2023
  6. Abstract The abrupt occurrence of twinning when Mg is deformed leads to a highly anisotropic response, making it too unreliable for structural use and too unpredictable for observation. Here, we describe an in-situ transmission electron microscopy experiment on Mg crystals with strategically designed geometries for visualization of a long-proposed but unverified twinning mechanism. Combining with atomistic simulations and topological analysis, we conclude that twin nucleation occurs through a pure-shuffle mechanism that requires prismatic-basal transformations. Also, we verified a crystal geometry dependent twin growth mechanism, that is the early-stage growth associated with instability of plasticity flow, which can be dominated either by slower movement of prismatic-basal boundary steps, or by faster glide-shuffle along the twinning plane. The fundamental understanding of twinning provides a pathway to understand deformation from a scientific standpoint and the microstructure design principles to engineer metals with enhanced behavior from a technological standpoint.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  9. Virtual screening is a cost- and time-effective alternative to traditional high-throughput screening in the drug discovery process. Both virtual screening approaches, structure-based molecular docking and ligand-based cheminformatics, suffer from computational cost, low accuracy, and/or reliance on prior knowledge of a ligand that binds to a given target. Here, we propose a neural network framework, NeuralDock, which accelerates the process of high-quality computational docking by a factor of 10 6 , and does not require prior knowledge of a ligand that binds to a given target. By approximating both protein-small molecule conformational sampling and energy-based scoring, NeuralDock accurately predicts the binding energy, and affinity of a protein-small molecule pair, based on protein pocket 3D structure and small molecule topology. We use NeuralDock and 25 GPUs to dock 937 million molecules from the ZINC database against superoxide dismutase-1 in 21 h, which we validate with physical docking using MedusaDock. Due to its speed and accuracy, NeuralDock may be useful in brute-force virtual screening of massive chemical libraries and training of generative drug models.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 22, 2023
  10. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023