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  1. Silicon carbide (SiC) recently emerged as a promising photonic and quantum material owing to its unique material properties. In this work, we carried out an exploratory investigation of the Pockels effect in high-quality-factor (high-Q) 4H-SiC microresonators and demonstrated gigahertz-level electro-optic modulation for the first time. The extracted Pockels coefficients show certain variations among 4H-SiC wafers from different manufacturers, with the magnitudes ofr13andr33estimated to be in the range of (0.3–0.7) pm/V and (0–0.03) pm/V, respectively.

     
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  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024
  3. Silicon carbide has recently emerged as a promising photonics material due to its unique properties, including possessing strong second- and third-order nonlinear coefficients and hosting various color centers that can be utilized for a wealth of quantum applications. Here, we report the design and demonstration of octave-spanning microcombs in a 4H-silicon-carbide-on-insulator platform for the first time, to our knowledge. Such broadband operation is enabled by optimized nanofabrication achieving>1million intrinsic quality factors in a 36-μm-radius microring resonator, and careful dispersion engineering by investigating the dispersion properties of different mode families. For example, for the fundamental transverse-electric mode whose dispersion can be tailored by simply varying the microring waveguide width, we realized a microcomb spectrum covering the wavelength range from 1100 nm to 2400 nm with an on-chip power near 120 mW. While the observed comb state is verified to be chaotic and not soliton, attaining such a large bandwidth is a crucial step towards realizingf2fself-referencing. In addition, we also observed a coherent soliton-crystal state for the fundamental transverse-magnetic mode, which exhibits stronger dispersion than the fundamental transverse-electric mode and hence a narrower bandwidth.

     
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  4. null (Ed.)
  5. Abstract

    Small‐scale robots capable of remote active steering and navigation offer great potential for biomedical applications. However, the current design and manufacturing procedure impede their miniaturization and integration of various diagnostic and therapeutic functionalities. Herein, submillimeter fiber robots that can integrate navigation, sensing, and modulation functions are presented. These fiber robots are fabricated through a scalable thermal drawing process at a speed of 4 meters per minute, which enables the integration of ferromagnetic, electrical, optical, and microfluidic composite with an overall diameter of as small as 250 µm and a length of as long as 150 m. The fiber tip deflection angle can reach up to 54ounder a uniform magnetic field of 45 mT. These fiber robots can navigate through complex and constrained environments, such as artificial vessels and brain phantoms. Moreover, Langendorff mouse hearts model, glioblastoma micro platforms, and in vivo mouse models are utilized to demonstrate the capabilities of sensing electrophysiology signals and performing a localized treatment. Additionally, it is demonstrated that the fiber robots can serve as endoscopes with embedded waveguides. These fiber robots provide a versatile platform for targeted multimodal detection and treatment at hard‐to‐reach locations in a minimally invasive and remotely controllable manner.

     
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  6. Abstract

    Scanning probe lithography is used to directly pattern monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) without the use of a sacrificial resist. Using an atomic‐force microscope, a negatively biased tip is brought close to the TMD surface. By inducing a water bridge between the tip and the TMD surface, controllable oxidation is achieved at the sub‐100 nm resolution. The oxidized flake is then submerged into water for selective oxide removal which leads to controllable patterning. In addition, by changing the oxidation time, thickness tunable patterning of multilayer TMDs is demonstrated. This resist‐less process results in exposed edges, overcoming a barrier in traditional resist‐based lithography and dry etch where polymeric byproduct layers are often formed at the edges. By patterning monolayers into geometric patterns of different dimensions and measuring the effective carrier lifetime, the non‐radiative recombination velocity due to edge defects is extracted. Using this patterning technique, it is shown that selenide TMDs exhibit lower edge recombination velocity as compared to sulfide TMDs. The utility of scanning probe lithography towards understanding material‐dependent edge recombination losses without significantly normalizing edge behaviors due to heavy defect generation, while allowing for eventual exploration of edge passivation schemes is highlighted, which is of profound interest for nanoscale electronics and optoelectronics.

     
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