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  1. Abstract Spin and lattice are two fundamental degrees of freedom in a solid, and their fluctuations about the equilibrium values in a magnetic ordered crystalline lattice form quasiparticles termed magnons (spin waves) and phonons (lattice waves), respectively. In most materials with strong spin-lattice coupling (SLC), the interaction of spin and lattice induces energy gaps in the spin wave dispersion at the nominal intersections of magnon and phonon modes. Here we use neutron scattering to show that in the two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals honeycomb lattice ferromagnetic CrGeTe 3 , spin waves propagating within the 2D plane exhibit an anomalous dispersion, damping, and breakdown of quasiparticle conservation, while magnons along the c axis behave as expected for a local moment ferromagnet. These results indicate the presence of dynamical SLC arising from the zero-temperature quantum fluctuations in CrGeTe 3 , suggesting that the observed in-plane spin waves are mixed spin and lattice quasiparticles fundamentally different from pure magnons and phonons.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 2, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 15, 2023
  4. Abstract

    Quantum spin systems such as magnetic insulators usually show magnetic order, but such classical states can give way toquantum liquids with exotic entanglementthrough two known mechanisms of frustration: geometric frustration in lattices with triangle motifs, and spin-orbit-coupling frustration in the exactly solvable quantum liquid of Kitaev’s honeycomb lattice. Here we present the experimental observation of a new kind of frustrated quantum liquid arising in an unlikely place: the magnetic insulator Ba4Ir3O10where Ir3O12trimers form an unfrustrated square lattice. The crystal structure shows no apparent spin chains. Experimentally we find a quantum liquid state persisting down to 0.2 K that is stabilized by strong antiferromagnetic interaction with Curie–Weiss temperature ranging from −766 to −169 K due to magnetic anisotropy. The anisotropy-averaged frustration parameter is 2000, seldom seen in iridates. Heat capacity and thermal conductivity are both linear at low temperatures, a familiar feature in metals but here in an insulator pointing to an exotic quantum liquid state; a mere 2% Sr substitution for Ba produces long-range order at 130 K and destroys the linear-T features. Although the Ir4+(5d5) ions in Ba4Ir3O10appear to form Ir3O12trimers of face-sharing IrO6octahedra, we propose that intra-trimer exchange is reduced and the lattice recombines into an array of coupled 1Dmore »chains with additional spins. An extreme limit of decoupled 1D chains can explain most but not all of the striking experimental observations, indicating that the inter-chain coupling plays an important role in the frustration mechanism leading to this quantum liquid.

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  5. Understanding H 2 binding and activation is important in the context of designing transition metal catalysts for many processes, including hydrogenation and the interconversion of H 2 with protons and electrons. This work reports the first thermodynamic and kinetic H 2 binding studies for an isostructural series of first-row metal complexes: NiML, where M = Al ( 1 ), Ga ( 2 ), and In ( 3 ), and L = [N( o -(NCH 2 P i Pr 2 )C 6 H 4 ) 3 ] 3− . Thermodynamic free energies (Δ G °) and free energies of activation (Δ G ‡ ) for binding equilibria were obtained via variable-temperature 31 P NMR studies and lineshape analysis. The supporting metal exerts a large influence on the thermodynamic favorability of both H 2 and N 2 binding to Ni, with Δ G ° values for H 2 binding found to span nearly the entire range of previous reports. The non-classical H 2 adduct, (η 2 -H 2 )NiInL ( 3 -H 2 ), was structurally characterized by single-crystal neutron diffraction—the first such study for a Ni(η 2 -H 2 ) complex or any d 10 M(η 2 -H 2 ) complex.more »UV-Vis studies and TD-DFT calculations identified specific electronic structure perturbations of the supporting metal which poise NiML complexes for small-molecule binding. ETS-NOCV calculations indicate that H 2 binding primarily occurs via H–H σ-donation to the Ni 4p z -based LUMO, which is proposed to become energetically accessible as the Ni(0)→M( iii ) dative interaction increases for the larger M( iii ) ions. Linear free-energy relationships are discussed, with the activation barrier for H 2 binding (Δ G ‡ ) found to decrease proportionally for more thermodynamically favorable equilibria. The Δ G ° values for H 2 and N 2 binding to NiML complexes were also found to be more exergonic for the larger M( iii ) ions.« less