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  1. Abstract The interplay between chirality and magnetism generates a distinct physical process, the magneto-chiral effect, which enables one to develop functionalities that cannot be achieved solely by any of the two. Such a process is universal with the breaking of parity-inversion and time-reversal symmetry simultaneously. However, the magneto-chiral effect observed so far is weak when the matter responds to photons, electrons, or phonons. Here we report the first observation of strong magneto-chiral response to excitons in a twisted bilayer tungsten disulfide with the amplitude of excitonic magneto-chiral (ExMCh) anisotropy reaches a value of ~4%. We further found the ExMCh anisotropymore »features with a spectral splitting of ~7 nm, precisely the full-width at half maximum of the excitonic chirality spectrum. Without an externally applied strong magnetic field, the observed ExMCh effect with a spontaneous magnetic moment from the ferromagnetic substrate of thulium iron garnet at room temperature is favorable for device applications. The unique ExMCh processes provide a new pathway to actively control magneto-chiral applications in photochemical reactions, asymmetric synthesis, and drug delivery.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  2. The applicability of agglomerative clustering, for inferring both hierarchical and flat clustering, is limited by its scalability. Existing scalable hierarchical clustering methods sacrifice quality for speed and often lead to over-merging of clusters. In this paper, we present a scalable, agglomerative method for hierarchical clustering that does not sacrifice quality and scales to billions of data points. We perform a detailed theoretical analysis, showing that under mild separability conditions our algorithm can not only recover the optimal flat partition but also provide a two-approximation to non-parametric DP-Means objective. This introduces a novel application of hierarchical clustering as an approximation algorithmmore »for the non-parametric clustering objective. We additionally relate our algorithm to the classic hierarchical agglomerative clustering method. We perform extensive empirical experiments in both hierarchical and flat clustering settings and show that our proposed approach achieves state-of-the-art results on publicly available clustering benchmarks. Finally, we demonstrate our method's scalability by applying it to a dataset of 30 billion queries. Human evaluation of the discovered clusters show that our method finds better quality of clusters than the current state-of-the-art.« less
  3. Cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) is a thick filament protein that influences sarcomere stiffness and modulates cardiac contraction-relaxation through its phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of cMyBP-C and ablation of cMyBP-C have been shown to increase the rate of MgADP release in the acto-myosin cross-bridge cycle in the intact sarcomere. The influence of cMyBP-C on Pi-dependent myosin kinetics has not yet been examined. We investigated the effect of cMyBP-C, and its phosphorylation, on myosin kinetics in demembranated papillary muscle strips bearing the β-cardiac myosin isoform from nontransgenic and homozygous transgenic mice lacking cMyBP-C. We used quick stretch and stochastic length-perturbation analysis to characterizemore »rates of myosin detachment and force development over 0–12 mM Pi and at maximal (pCa 4.8) and near-half maximal (pCa 5.75) Ca 2+ activation. Protein kinase A (PKA) treatment was applied to half the strips to probe the effect of cMyBP-C phosphorylation on Pi sensitivity of myosin kinetics. Increasing Pi increased myosin cross-bridge detachment rate similarly for muscles with and without cMyBP-C, although these rates were higher in muscle without cMyBP-C. Treating myocardial strips with PKA accelerated detachment rate when cMyBP-C was present over all Pi, but not when cMyBP-C was absent. The rate of force development increased with Pi in all muscles. However, Pi sensitivity of the rate force development was reduced when cMyBP-C was present versus absent, suggesting that cMyBP-C inhibits Pi-dependent reversal of the power stroke or stabilizes cross-bridge attachment to enhance the probability of completing the power stroke. These results support a functional role for cMyBP-C in slowing myosin detachment rate, possibly through a direct interaction with myosin or by altering strain-dependent myosin detachment via cMyBP-C-dependent stiffness of the thick filament and myofilament lattice. PKA treatment reduces the role for cMyBP-C to slow myosin detachment and thus effectively accelerates β-myosin detachment in the intact myofilament lattice. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Length perturbation analysis was used to demonstrate that β-cardiac myosin characteristic rates of detachment and recruitment in the intact myofilament lattice are accelerated by Pi, phosphorylation of cMyBP-C, and the absence of cMyBP-C. The results suggest that cMyBP-C normally slows myosin detachment, including Pi-dependent detachment, and that this inhibition is released with phosphorylation or absence of cMyBP-C.« less
  4. An intimate knowledge of aerosol transport is essential in reducing the uncertainty of the impacts of aerosols on cloud development. Datasets from the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement platform in the Southern Great Plains region (ARM-SGP) and the NASA Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, version 2 (MERRA-2) showed seasonal increases in aerosol loading and total carbon concentration during the spring and summer months (2008-2016) which was attributed to fire activity and smoke transport within North America. The monthly mean MERRA-2 surface carbonaceous aerosol mass concentration and ARM-SGP total carbon products were strongly correlated (R=0.82,more »p<0.01) along with a moderate correlation with the ARM-SGP cloud condensation nuclei (NCCN) product (0.5, p~0.1). The monthly mean ARM-SGP total carbon and NCCN products were strongly correlated (0.7, p~0.01). An additional product denoting fire number and coverage taken from the National Interagency Fire Center (NIFC) showed a moderate correlation with the MERRA-2 carbonaceous product (0.45, p<0.01) during the 1981-2016 warm season months (March-September). With respect to meteorological conditions, the correlation between the NIFC fire product and MERRA-2 850 hPa isobaric height anomalies was lower (0.26, p~0.13) due to the variability in the frequency, intensity, and number of fires in North America. An observed increase in the isobaric height anomaly during the past decade may lead to frequent synoptic ridging and drier conditions with more fires, thereby potentially impacting cloud/precipitation processes and decreasing air quality.« less
  5. Toll/Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key regulators of the innate immune system in both invertebrates and vertebrates. However, while mammalian TLRs directly recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns, the insect Toll pathway is thought to be primarily activated by binding Spätzle cytokines that are processed from inactive precursors in response to microbial infection. Phylogenetic and structural data generated in this study supported earlier results showing that Toll9 members differ from other insect Tolls by clustering with the mammalian TLR4 group, which recognizes lipopolysaccharide (LPS) through interaction with myeloid differentiation-2 (MD-2)–like proteins. Functional experiments showed that BmToll9 from the silkmothBombyx morialso recognized LPS throughmore »interaction with two MD-2–like proteins, previously named BmEsr16 and BmPP, that we refer to in this study as BmMD-2A and BmMD-2B, respectively. A chimeric BmToll9–TLR4 receptor consisting of the BmToll9 ectodomain and mouse TLR4 transmembrane and Toll/interleukin-1 (TIR) domains also activated LPS-induced release of inflammatory factors in murine cells but only in the presence of BmMD-2A or BmMD-2B. Overall, our results indicate that BmToll9 is a pattern recognition receptor for LPS that shares conserved features with the mammalian TLR4–MD-2–LPS pathway.

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  6. Abstract This study investigates a nocturnal mesoscale convective system (MCS) observed during the Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) field campaign. A series of wavelike features were observed ahead of this MCS with extensive convective initiation (CI) taking place in the wake of one of these disturbances. Simulations with the WRF-ARW Model were utilized to understand the dynamics of these disturbances and their impact on the MCS. In these simulations, an “elevated bore” formed within an inversion layer aloft in response to the layer being lifted by air flowing up and over the cold pool. As the bore propagated aheadmore »of the MCS, the lifting created an environment more conducive to deep convection allowing the MCS to discretely propagate due to CI in the bore’s wake. The Scorer parameter was somewhat favorable for trapping of this wave energy, although aspects of the environment evolved to be consistent with the expectations for an n = 2 mode deep tropospheric gravity wave. A bore within an inversion layer aloft is reminiscent of disturbances predicted by two-layer hydraulic theory, contrasting with recent studies that suggest bores are frequently initiated by the interaction between the flow within stable nocturnal boundary layer and convectively generated cold pools. Idealized simulations that expand upon this two-layer approach with orography and a well-mixed layer below the inversion suggest that elevated bores provide a possible mechanism for daytime squall lines to remove the capping inversion often found over the Great Plains, particularly in synoptically disturbed environments where vertical shear could create a favorable trapping of wave energy.« less