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  1. Abstract

    We study tidal dissipation in hot Jupiter host stars due to the nonlinear damping of tidally driveng-modes, extending the calculations of Essick & Weinberg to a wide variety of stellar host types. This process causes the planet’s orbit to decay and has potentially important consequences for the evolution and fate of hot Jupiters. Previous studies either only accounted for linear dissipation processes or assumed that the resonantly excited primary mode becomes strongly nonlinear and breaks as it approaches the stellar center. However, the great majority of hot Jupiter systems are in the weakly nonlinear regime in which the primary mode does not break but instead excites a sea of secondary modes via three-mode interactions. We simulate these nonlinear interactions and calculate the net mode dissipation for stars that range in mass from 0.5MM≤ 2.0Mand in age from the early main sequence to the subgiant phase. We find that the nonlinearly excited secondary modes can enhance the tidal dissipation by orders of magnitude compared to linear dissipation processes. For the stars withM≲ 1.0Mof nearly any age, we find that the orbital decay time is ≲100 Myr for orbital periodsPorb≲ 1 day. ForM≳ 1.2M, the orbital decay time only becomes short on the subgiant branch, where it can be ≲10 Myr forPorb≲ 2 days and result in significant transit time shifts. We discuss these results in the context of known hot Jupiter systems and examine the prospects for detecting their orbital decay with transit timing measurements.

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    Tidal interactions in coalescing binary neutron stars modify the dynamics of the inspiral and hence imprint a signature on their gravitational wave (GW) signals in the form of an extra phase shift. We need accurate models for the tidal phase shift in order to constrain the supranuclear equation of state from observations. In previous studies, GW waveform models were typically constructed by treating the tide as a linear response to a perturbing tidal field. In this work, we incorporate non-linear corrections due to hydrodynamic three- and four-mode interactions and show how they can improve the accuracy and explanatory power of waveform models. We set up and numerically solve the coupled differential equations for the orbit and the modes and analytically derive solutions of the system’s equilibrium configuration. Our analytical solutions agree well with the numerical ones up to the merger and involve only algebraic relations, allowing for fast phase shift and waveform evaluations for different equations of state over a large parameter space. We find that, at Newtonian order, non-linear fluid effects can enhance the tidal phase shift by $\gtrsim 1\, {\rm radian}$ at a GW frequency of 1000 Hz, corresponding to a $10{{\%}}-20{{\%}}$ correction to the linear theory. The scale of the additional phase shift near the merger is consistent with the difference between numerical relativity and theoretical predictions that account only for the linear tide. Non-linear fluid effects are thus important when interpreting the results of numerical relativity and in the construction of waveform models for current and future GW detectors.

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  3. Abstract

    High-eccentricity tidal migration is a potential formation channel for hot Jupiters. During this process, the planetary f-mode may experience a phase of diffusive growth, allowing its energy to quickly build up to large values. In Yu et al., we demonstrated that nonlinear mode interactions between a parent f-mode and daughter f- and p-modes expand the parameter space over which the diffusive growth of the parent is triggered. We extend that study by incorporating (1) the angular momentum transfer between the orbit and the mode, and consequently the evolution of the pericenter distance; (2) a prescription to regulate the nonlinear frequency shift at high parent mode energies; and (3) dissipation of the parent’s energy due to both turbulent convective damping of the daughter modes and strongly nonlinear wave-breaking events. The new ingredients allow us to follow the coupled evolution of the mode and orbit over ≳104yr, covering the diffusive evolution from its onset to its termination. We find that the semimajor axis shrinks by a factor of nearly 10 over 104yr, corresponding to a tidal quality factor10. The f-mode’s diffusive growth terminates while the eccentricity is still high, at arounde= 0.8–0.95. Using these results, we revisit the eccentricity distribution of proto-hot Jupiters. We estimate that less than 1 proto-HJ with eccentricity >0.9 should be expected in Kepler's data once the diffusive regime is accounted for, explaining the observed paucity of this population.

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  4. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Compact white dwarf (WD) binaries are important sources for space-based gravitational-wave (GW) observatories, and an increasing number of them are being identified by surveys like Extremely Low Mass (ELM) and Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF). We study the effects of non-linear dynamical tides in such binaries. We focus on the global three-mode parametric instability and show that it has a much lower threshold energy than the local wave-breaking condition studied previously. By integrating networks of coupled modes, we calculate the tidal dissipation rate as a function of orbital period. We construct phenomenological models that match these numerical results and use them to evaluate the spin and luminosity evolution of a WD binary. While in linear theory the WD’s spin frequency can lock to the orbital frequency, we find that such a lock cannot be maintained when non-linear effects are taken into account. Instead, as the orbit decays, the spin and orbit go in and out of synchronization. Each time they go out of synchronization, there is a brief but significant dip in the tidal heating rate. While most WDs in compact binaries should have luminosities that are similar to previous traveling-wave estimates, a few per cent should be about 10 times dimmer because they reside in heating rate dips. This offers a potential explanation for the low luminosity of the CO WD in J0651. Lastly, we consider the impact of tides on the GW signal and show that the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) and TianGO can constrain the WD’s moment of inertia to better than $1{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ for centi-Hz systems. 
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