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  3. Non-mode-selective (NMS) multiplexers (muxes) are highly desirable for coherent power combining to produce a high-power beam with a shaped profile (wavefront synthesis) from discrete, phase-locked emitters. We propose a design for a multi-plane light conversion (MPLC)-based NMS mux, which requires only a few phase masks for coherently combining hundreds of discrete input beams into an output beam consisting of hundreds of Hermite–Gaussian (HG) modes. The combination of HG modes as a base can further construct a beam with arbitrary wavefront. The low number of phase masks is attributed to the identical zero-crossing structure of the Hadamard-coded input arrays and of the output HG modes, enabling the practicality of such devices. An NMS mux supporting 256 HG modes is designed using only seven phase masks, and achieves an insertion loss of1.6  dB, mode-dependent loss of 4.7 dB, and average total mode crosstalk of4.4  dB. Additionally, this design, featuring equal power for all input beams, enables phase-only control in coherent power combining, resulting in significant simplifications and fast convergence compared with phase-and-amplitude control.

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  4. We present a few-mode frequency-modulated receiver for light detection and ranging (LiDAR). We show that using a few-mode local oscillator (LO) with spatial modes at different frequencies at the receiver can significantly improve the performance of the LiDAR detection range. A preferred receiver architecture features LO modes with unequal frequency separations based on optical orthogonal codes (OOC) to allow range detection via cross correlation. The required signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) LiDAR decreases with the number of LO modes. This receiver can have a potential impact in the area of automotive LiDARs.

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  5. We propose a Hermite–Gaussian (HG) mode-demulti-plexing hybrid (MDH) for coherent detection of mode-division multiplexed signals. The MDH, which performs multiple functionalities, including demultiplexing, local oscillator splitting, and optical 90-deg mixing, is realized based on the multi-plane light conversion technique. An isosceles right triangle output layout is employed to reduce the number of phase masks to fewer than the number of modes, significantly simplifying the construction of the MDH. A 10-Hermite–Gaussian (HG) mode MDH with only five phase masks is demonstrated by numerical simulation, achieving an insertion loss (IL) and mode dependent loss as low as−<#comment/>2.3and 1.7 dB, respectively. The IL was further reduced to−<#comment/>1.5dBthrough optimization of MDH parameters, such as the beam waists of the input HG modes and the output spots.

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  6. Mode-selective fiber lasers have advantages in a number of applications. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate a transverse mode-selective few-mode Brillouin fiber laser using the mode-selective photonic lantern. We generated the lowest three orders of linearly polarized (LP) modes based on both intramodal and intermodal stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). Their slope efficiencies, optical spectra, mode profiles, and linewidths were measured.

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