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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  2. Abstract We present a measurement of the high-energy astrophysical muon–neutrino flux with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. The measurement uses a high-purity selection of 650k neutrino-induced muon tracks from the northern celestial hemisphere, corresponding to 9.5 yr of experimental data. With respect to previous publications, the measurement is improved by the increased size of the event sample and the extended model testing beyond simple power-law hypotheses. An updated treatment of systematic uncertainties and atmospheric background fluxes has been implemented based on recent models. The best-fit single power-law parameterization for the astrophysical energy spectrum results in a normalization of ϕ @ 100more »TeV ν μ + ν ¯ μ = 1.44 − 0.26 + 0.25 × 10 − 18 GeV − 1 cm − 2 s − 1 sr − 1 and a spectral index γ SPL = 2.37 − 0.09 + 0.09 , constrained in the energy range from 15 TeV to 5 PeV. The model tests include a single power law with a spectral cutoff at high energies, a log-parabola model, several source-class-specific flux predictions from the literature, and a model-independent spectral unfolding. The data are consistent with a single power-law hypothesis, however, spectra with softening above one PeV are statistically more favorable at a two-sigma level.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  4. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole has measured the diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux up to ~PeV energies and is starting to identify first point source candidates. The next generation facility, IceCube-Gen2, aims at extending the accessible energy range to EeV in order to measure the continuation of the astrophysical spectrum, to identify neutrino sources, and to search for a cosmogenic neutrino flux. As part of IceCube-Gen2, a radio array is foreseen that is sensitive to detect Askaryan emission of neutrinos beyond ~30 PeV. Surface and deep antenna stations have different benefits in terms of effective area, resolution, andmore »the capability to reject backgrounds from cosmic-ray air showers and may be combined to reach the best sensitivity. The optimal detector configuration is still to be identified. This contribution presents the full-array simulation efforts for a combination of deep and surface antennas, and compares different design options with respect to their sensitivity to fulfill the science goals of IceCube-Gen2.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 18, 2023
  5. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory opened the window on high-energy neutrino astronomy by confirming the existence of PeV astrophysical neutrinos and identifying the first compelling astrophysical neutrino source in the blazar TXS0506+056. Planning is underway to build an enlarged detector, IceCube-Gen2, which will extend measurements to higher energies, increase the rate of observed cosmic neutrinos and provide improved prospects for detecting fainter sources. IceCube-Gen2 is planned to have an extended in-ice optical array, a radio array at shallower depths for detecting ultra-high-energy (>100 PeV) neutrinos, and a surface component studying cosmic rays. In this contribution, we will discuss the simulation ofmore »the in-ice optical component of the baseline design of the IceCube-Gen2 detector, which foresees the deployment of an additional ~120 new detection strings to the existing 86 in IceCube over ~7 Antarctic summer seasons. Motivated by the phased construction plan for IceCube-Gen2, we discuss how the reconstruction capabilities and sensitivities of the instrument are expected to progress throughout its deployment.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 18, 2023
  6. Abstract Ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) have infrared luminosities L IR ≥ 10 12 L ⊙ , making them the most luminous objects in the infrared sky. These dusty objects are generally powered by starbursts with star formation rates that exceed 100 M ⊙ yr −1 , possibly combined with a contribution from an active galactic nucleus. Such environments make ULIRGs plausible sources of astrophysical high-energy neutrinos, which can be observed by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole. We present a stacking search for high-energy neutrinos from a representative sample of 75 ULIRGs with redshift z ≤ 0.13 usingmore »7.5 yr of IceCube data. The results are consistent with a background-only observation, yielding upper limits on the neutrino flux from these 75 ULIRGs. For an unbroken E −2.5 power-law spectrum, we report an upper limit on the stacked flux Φ ν μ + ν ¯ μ 90 % = 3.24 × 10 − 14 TeV − 1 cm − 2 s − 1 ( E / 10 TeV ) − 2.5 at 90% confidence level. In addition, we constrain the contribution of the ULIRG source population to the observed diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux as well as model predictions.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022
  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022
  10. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is a multi-component detector at the South Pole which detects high-energy particles emerging from astrophysical events. These particles provide us with insights into the fundamental properties and behaviour of their sources. Besides its principal usage and merits in neutrino astronomy, using IceCube in conjunction with its surface array, IceTop, also makes it a unique three-dimensional cosmic-ray detector. This distinctive feature helps facilitate detailed cosmic-ray analysis in the transition region from galactic to extragalactic sources. We will present the progress made on multiple fronts to establish a framework for mass-estimation of primary cosmic rays. The first techniquemore »relies on a likelihood-based analysis of the surface signal distribution and improves upon the standard reconstruction technique. The second uses advanced methods in graph neural networks to use the full in-ice shower footprint, in addition to global shower-footprint features from IceTop. A comparison between the two methods for composition analysis as well as a possible extension of the analysis techniques for sub-PeV cosmic-ray air-showers will also be discussed.« less