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Creators/Authors contains: "Wilkening, Jon"

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  1. We present a method of detecting bifurcations by locating zeros of a signed version of the smallest singular value of the Jacobian. This enables the use of quadratically convergent root-bracketing techniques or Chebyshev interpolation to locate bifurcation points. Only positive singular values have to be computed, though the method relies on the existence of an analytic or smooth singular value decomposition (SVD). The sign of the determinant of the Jacobian, computed as part of the bidiagonal reduction in the SVD algorithm, eliminates slope discontinuities at the zeros of the smallest singular value. We use the method to search for spatially quasi-periodic traveling water waves that bifurcate from large-amplitude periodic waves. The water wave equations are formulated in a conformal mapping framework to facilitate the computation of the quasi-periodic Dirichlet-Neumann operator. We find examples of pure gravity waves with zero surface tension and overhanging gravity-capillary waves. In both cases, the waves have two spatial quasi-periods whose ratio is irrational. We follow the secondary branches via numerical continuation beyond the realm of linearization about solutions on the primary branch to obtain traveling water waves that extend over the real line with no two crests or troughs of exactly the same shape. The pure gravity wave problem is of relevance to ocean waves, where capillary effects can be neglected. Such waves can only exist through secondary bifurcation as they do not persist to zero amplitude. The gravity-capillary wave problem demonstrates the effectiveness of using the signed smallest singular value as a test function for multi-parameter bifurcation problems. This test function becomes mesh independent once the mesh is fine enough. 
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  2. We present a numerical study of spatially quasi-periodic gravity-capillary waves of finite depth in both the initial value problem and travelling wave settings. We adopt a quasi-periodic conformal mapping formulation of the Euler equations, where one-dimensional quasi-periodic functions are represented by periodic functions on a higher-dimensional torus. We compute the time evolution of free surface waves in the presence of a background flow and a quasi-periodic bottom boundary and observe the formation of quasi-periodic patterns on the free surface. Two types of quasi-periodic travelling waves are computed: small-amplitude waves bifurcating from the zero-amplitude solution and larger-amplitude waves bifurcating from finite-amplitude periodic travelling waves. We derive weakly nonlinear approximations of the first type and investigate the associated small-divisor problem. We find that waves of the second type exhibit striking nonlinear behaviour, e.g. the peaks and troughs are shifted non-periodically from the corresponding periodic waves due to the activation of quasi-periodic modes.

     
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  3. Abstract

    We present two accurate and efficient algorithms for solving the incompressible, irrotational Euler equations with a free surface in two dimensions with background flow over a periodic, multiply connected fluid domain that includes stationary obstacles and variable bottom topography. One approach is formulated in terms of the surface velocity potential while the other evolves the vortex sheet strength. Both methods employ layer potentials in the form of periodized Cauchy integrals to compute the normal velocity of the free surface, are compatible with arbitrary parameterizations of the free surface and boundaries, and allow for circulation around each obstacle, which leads to multiple-valued velocity potentials but single-valued stream functions. We prove that the resulting second-kind Fredholm integral equations are invertible, possibly after a physically motivated finite-rank correction. In an angle-arclength setting, we show how to avoid curve reconstruction errors that are incompatible with spatial periodicity. We use the proposed methods to study gravity-capillary waves generated by flow around several elliptical obstacles above a flat or variable bottom boundary. In each case, the free surface eventually self-intersects in a splash singularity or collides with a boundary. We also show how to evaluate the velocity and pressure with spectral accuracy throughout the fluid, including near the free surface and solid boundaries. To assess the accuracy of the time evolution, we monitor energy conservation and the decay of Fourier modes and compare the numerical results of the two methods to each other. We implement several solvers for the discretized linear systems and compare their performance. The fastest approach employs a graphics processing unit (GPU) to construct the matrices and carry out iterations of the generalized minimal residual method (GMRES).

     
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  4. We propose a new two-parameter family of hybrid traveling-standing (TS) water waves in infinite depth that evolve to a spatial translation of their initial condition at a later time. We use the square root of the energy as an amplitude parameter and introduce a traveling parameter that naturally interpolates between pure traveling waves moving in either direction and pure standing waves in one of four natural phase configurations. The problem is formulated as a two-point boundary value problem and a quasi-periodic torus representation is presented that exhibits TS-waves as nonlinear superpositions of counter-propagating traveling waves. We use an overdetermined shooting method to compute nearly 50,000 TS-wave solutions and explore their properties. Examples of waves that periodically form sharp crests with high curvature or dimpled crests with negative curvature are presented. We find that pure traveling waves maximize the magnitude of the horizontal momentum among TS-waves of a given energy. Numerical evidence suggests that the two-parameter family of TS-waves contains many gaps and disconnections where solutions with the given parameters do not exist. Some of these gaps are shown to persist to zero-amplitude in a fourth-order perturbation expansion of the solutions in powers of the amplitude parameter. Analytic formulas for the coefficients of this perturbation expansion are identified using Chebyshev interpolation of solutions computed in quadruple-precision.

     
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  5. We present a numerical study of spatially quasi-periodic travelling waves on the surface of an ideal fluid of infinite depth. This is a generalization of the classic Wilton ripple problem to the case when the ratio of wavenumbers satisfying the dispersion relation is irrational. We propose a conformal mapping formulation of the water wave equations that employs a quasi-periodic variant of the Hilbert transform to compute the normal velocity of the fluid from its velocity potential on the free surface. We develop a Fourier pseudo-spectral discretization of the travelling water wave equations in which one-dimensional quasi-periodic functions are represented by two-dimensional periodic functions on the torus. This leads to an overdetermined nonlinear least-squares problem that we solve using a variant of the Levenberg–Marquardt method. We investigate various properties of quasi-periodic travelling waves, including Fourier resonances, time evolution in conformal space on the torus, asymmetric wave crests, capillary wave patterns that change from one gravity wave trough to the next without repeating and the dependence of wave speed and surface tension on the amplitude parameters that describe a two-parameter family of waves. 
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  6. Abstract

    We formulate the two-dimensional gravity-capillary water wave equations in a spatially quasi-periodic setting and present a numerical study of solutions of the initial value problem. We propose a Fourier pseudo-spectral discretization of the equations of motion in which one-dimensional quasi-periodic functions are represented by two-dimensional periodic functions on a torus. We adopt a conformal mapping formulation and employ a quasi-periodic version of the Hilbert transform to determine the normal velocity of the free surface. Two methods of time-stepping the initial value problem are proposed, an explicit Runge–Kutta (ERK) method and an exponential time-differencing (ETD) scheme. The ETD approach makes use of the small-scale decomposition to eliminate stiffness due to surface tension. We perform a convergence study to compare the accuracy and efficiency of the methods on a traveling wave test problem. We also present an example of a periodic wave profile containing vertical tangent lines that is set in motion with a quasi-periodic velocity potential. As time evolves, each wave peak evolves differently, and only some of them overturn. Beyond water waves, we argue that spatial quasi-periodicity is a natural setting to study the dynamics of linear and nonlinear waves, offering a third option to the usual modeling assumption that solutions either evolve on a periodic domain or decay at infinity.

     
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  7. In this note we prove several analytical results about generalized Kimura diffusion operators, $L,$ defined on compact manifolds with corners, $P.$ It is shown that the $\cC^0(P)$-graph closure of $L$ acting on $\cC^2(P)$ always has a compact resolvent. In the $1d$-case, where $P=[0,1],$ we also establish a gradient estimate $\|\pa_x f\|_{\cC^0([0,1])}\leq C\| L f\|_{\cC^0([0,1])},$ provided that $L$ has strictly positive weights at $\pa [0,1]=\{0,1\}.$ This in turn leads to a precise characterization of the domain of the $\cC^0$-graph closure in this case. 
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