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  1. Abstract. The uptake of carbonyl sulfide (COS) by terrestrial plants is linked tophotosynthetic uptake of CO2 as these gases partly share the sameuptake pathway. Applying COS as a photosynthesis tracer in models requires anaccurate representation of biosphere COS fluxes, but these models have notbeen extensively evaluated against field observations of COS fluxes. In thispaper, the COS flux as simulated by the Simple Biosphere Model, version 4(SiB4), is updated with the latest mechanistic insights and evaluated with siteobservations from different biomes: one evergreen needleleaf forest, twodeciduous broadleaf forests, three grasslands, and two crop fields spread overEurope and North America. We improved SiB4 in several ways to improve itsrepresentation of COS. To account for the effect of atmospheric COS molefractions on COS biosphere uptake, we replaced the fixed atmospheric COS molefraction boundary condition originally used in SiB4 with spatially andtemporally varying COS mole fraction fields. Seasonal amplitudes of COS molefractions are ∼50–200 ppt at the investigated sites with aminimum mole fraction in the late growing season. Incorporating seasonalvariability into the model reduces COS uptake rates in the late growingseason, allowing better agreement with observations. We also replaced theempirical soil COS uptake model in SiB4 with a mechanistic model thatrepresents both uptake and productionmore »of COS in soils, which improves thematch with observations over agricultural fields and fertilized grasslandsoils. The improved version of SiB4 was capable of simulating the diurnal andseasonal variation in COS fluxes in the boreal, temperate, and Mediterraneanregion. Nonetheless, the daytime vegetation COS flux is underestimated onaverage by 8±27 %, albeit with large variability across sites. On aglobal scale, our model modifications decreased the modeled COS terrestrialbiosphere sink from 922 Gg S yr−1 in the original SiB4 to753 Gg S yr−1 in the updated version. The largest decrease influxes was driven by lower atmospheric COS mole fractions over regions withhigh productivity, which highlights the importance of accounting forvariations in atmospheric COS mole fractions. The change to a different soilmodel, on the other hand, had a relatively small effect on the globalbiosphere COS sink. The secondary role of the modeled soil component in theglobal COS budget supports the use of COS as a global photosynthesis tracer. Amore accurate representation of COS uptake in SiB4 should allow for improvedapplication of atmospheric COS as a tracer of local- to global-scaleterrestrial photosynthesis.« less
  2. null (Ed.)
    Abstract The leaf economics spectrum 1,2 and the global spectrum of plant forms and functions 3 revealed fundamental axes of variation in plant traits, which represent different ecological strategies that are shaped by the evolutionary development of plant species 2 . Ecosystem functions depend on environmental conditions and the traits of species that comprise the ecological communities 4 . However, the axes of variation of ecosystem functions are largely unknown, which limits our understanding of how ecosystems respond as a whole to anthropogenic drivers, climate and environmental variability 4,5 . Here we derive a set of ecosystem functions 6 from a dataset of surface gas exchange measurements across major terrestrial biomes. We find that most of the variability within ecosystem functions (71.8%) is captured by three key axes. The first axis reflects maximum ecosystem productivity and is mostly explained by vegetation structure. The second axis reflects ecosystem water-use strategies and is jointly explained by variation in vegetation height and climate. The third axis, which represents ecosystem carbon-use efficiency, features a gradient related to aridity, and is explained primarily by variation in vegetation structure. We show that two state-of-the-art land surface models reproduce the first and most important axis of ecosystem functions.more »However, the models tend to simulate more strongly correlated functions than those observed, which limits their ability to accurately predict the full range of responses to environmental changes in carbon, water and energy cycling in terrestrial ecosystems 7,8 .« less
  3. Abstract. Evaporation (E) and transpiration (T) respond differentlyto ongoing changes in climate, atmospheric composition, and land use. It isdifficult to partition ecosystem-scale evapotranspiration (ET) measurementsinto E and T, which makes it difficult to validate satellite data and landsurface models. Here, we review current progress in partitioning E and T andprovide a prospectus for how to improve theory and observations goingforward. Recent advancements in analytical techniques create newopportunities for partitioning E and T at the ecosystem scale, but theirassumptions have yet to be fully tested. For example, many approaches topartition E and T rely on the notion that plant canopy conductance andecosystem water use efficiency exhibit optimal responses to atmosphericvapor pressure deficit (D). We use observations from 240 eddy covariance fluxtowers to demonstrate that optimal ecosystem response to D is a reasonableassumption, in agreement with recent studies, but more analysis is necessaryto determine the conditions for which this assumption holds. Anothercritical assumption for many partitioning approaches is that ET can beapproximated as T during ideal transpiring conditions, which has beenchallenged by observational studies. We demonstrate that T can exceed 95 %of ET from certain ecosystems, but other ecosystems do not appear to reachthis value, which suggests that this assumption is ecosystem-dependent withimplicationsmore »for partitioning. It is important to further improve approachesfor partitioning E and T, yet few multi-method comparisons have beenundertaken to date. Advances in our understanding of carbon–water couplingat the stomatal, leaf, and canopy level open new perspectives on how toquantify T via its strong coupling with photosynthesis. Photosynthesis can beconstrained at the ecosystem and global scales with emerging data sourcesincluding solar-induced fluorescence, carbonyl sulfide flux measurements,thermography, and more. Such comparisons would improve our mechanisticunderstanding of ecosystem water fluxes and provide the observationsnecessary to validate remote sensing algorithms and land surface models tounderstand the changing global water cycle.« less
  4. Abstract The Integrated Carbon Observation System Research Infrastructure aims to provide long-term, continuous observations of sources and sinks of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and water vapour. At ICOS ecosystem stations, the principal technique for measurements of ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of GHGs is the eddy-covariance technique. The establishment and setup of an eddy-covariance tower have to be carefully reasoned to ensure high quality flux measurements being representative of the investigated ecosystem and comparable to measurements at other stations. To fulfill the requirements needed for flux determination with the eddy-covariance technique, variations in GHG concentrations have to be measured at high frequency, simultaneously with the wind velocity, in order to fully capture turbulent fluctuations. This requires the use of high-frequency gas analysers and ultrasonic anemometers. In addition, to analyse flux data with respect to environmental conditions but also to enable corrections in the post-processing procedures, it is necessary to measure additional abiotic variables in close vicinity to the flux measurements. Here we describe the standards the ICOS ecosystem station network has adopted for GHG flux measurements with respect to the setup of instrumentation on towers to maximize measurement precision and accuracy while allowing for flexibility in order tomore »observe specific ecosystem features.« less
  5. This paper describes the formation of, and initial results for, a new FLUXNET coordination network for ecosystem-scale methane (CH 4 ) measurements at 60 sites globally, organized by the Global Carbon Project in partnership with other initiatives and regional flux tower networks. The objectives of the effort are presented along with an overview of the coverage of eddy covariance (EC) CH 4 flux measurements globally, initial results comparing CH 4 fluxes across the sites, and future research directions and needs. Annual estimates of net CH 4 fluxes across sites ranged from −0.2 ± 0.02 g C m –2 yr –1 for an upland forest site to 114.9 ± 13.4 g C m –2 yr –1 for an estuarine freshwater marsh, with fluxes exceeding 40 g C m –2 yr –1 at multiple sites. Average annual soil and air temperatures were found to be the strongest predictor of annual CH 4 flux across wetland sites globally. Water table position was positively correlated with annual CH 4 emissions, although only for wetland sites that were not consistently inundated throughout the year. The ratio of annual CH 4 fluxes to ecosystem respiration increased significantly with mean site temperature. Uncertainties in annual CH 4more »estimates due to gap-filling and random errors were on average ±1.6 g C m –2 yr –1 at 95% confidence, with the relative error decreasing exponentially with increasing flux magnitude across sites. Through the analysis and synthesis of a growing EC CH 4 flux database, the controls on ecosystem CH 4 fluxes can be better understood, used to inform and validate Earth system models, and reconcile differences between land surface model- and atmospheric-based estimates of CH 4 emissions.« less
  6. Abstract. Methane (CH4) emissions from natural landscapes constituteroughly half of global CH4 contributions to the atmosphere, yet largeuncertainties remain in the absolute magnitude and the seasonality ofemission quantities and drivers. Eddy covariance (EC) measurements ofCH4 flux are ideal for constraining ecosystem-scale CH4emissions due to quasi-continuous and high-temporal-resolution CH4flux measurements, coincident carbon dioxide, water, and energy fluxmeasurements, lack of ecosystem disturbance, and increased availability ofdatasets over the last decade. Here, we (1) describe the newly publisheddataset, FLUXNET-CH4 Version 1.0, the first open-source global dataset ofCH4 EC measurements (available at, last access: 7 April 2021). FLUXNET-CH4includes half-hourly and daily gap-filled and non-gap-filled aggregatedCH4 fluxes and meteorological data from 79 sites globally: 42freshwater wetlands, 6 brackish and saline wetlands, 7 formerly drainedecosystems, 7 rice paddy sites, 2 lakes, and 15 uplands. Then, we (2) evaluate FLUXNET-CH4 representativeness for freshwater wetland coverageglobally because the majority of sites in FLUXNET-CH4 Version 1.0 arefreshwater wetlands which are a substantial source of total atmosphericCH4 emissions; and (3) we provide the first global estimates of theseasonal variability and seasonality predictors of freshwater wetlandCH4 fluxes. Our representativeness analysis suggests that thefreshwater wetland sites in the dataset cover global wetland bioclimaticattributes (encompassing energy, moisture, and vegetation-relatedparameters) in arctic, boreal, and temperate regions but only sparselycovermore »humid tropical regions. Seasonality metrics of wetland CH4emissions vary considerably across latitudinal bands. In freshwater wetlands(except those between 20∘ S to 20∘ N) the spring onsetof elevated CH4 emissions starts 3 d earlier, and the CH4emission season lasts 4 d longer, for each degree Celsius increase in meanannual air temperature. On average, the spring onset of increasing CH4emissions lags behind soil warming by 1 month, with very few sites experiencingincreased CH4 emissions prior to the onset of soil warming. Incontrast, roughly half of these sites experience the spring onset of risingCH4 emissions prior to the spring increase in gross primaryproductivity (GPP). The timing of peak summer CH4 emissions does notcorrelate with the timing for either peak summer temperature or peak GPP.Our results provide seasonality parameters for CH4 modeling andhighlight seasonality metrics that cannot be predicted by temperature or GPP(i.e., seasonality of CH4 peak). FLUXNET-CH4 is a powerful new resourcefor diagnosing and understanding the role of terrestrial ecosystems andclimate drivers in the global CH4 cycle, and future additions of sitesin tropical ecosystems and site years of data collection will provide addedvalue to this database. All seasonality parameters are available at (Delwiche et al., 2021).Additionally, raw FLUXNET-CH4 data used to extract seasonality parameterscan be downloaded from (last access: 7 April 2021), and a completelist of the 79 individual site data DOIs is provided in Table 2 of this paper.« less