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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 27, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 5, 2023
  3. Serverless computing platforms simplify development, deployment, and automated management of modular software functions. However, existing serverless platforms typically assume an over-provisioned cloud, making them a poor fit for Edge Computing environments where resources are scarce. In this paper we propose a redesigned serverless platform that comprehensively tackles the key challenges for serverless functions in a resource constrained Edge Cloud. Our Mu platform cleanly integrates the core resource management components of a serverless platform: autoscaling, load balancing, and placement. Each worker node in Mu transparently propagates metrics such as service rate and queue length in response headers, feeding this information to the load balancing system so that it can better route requests, and to our autoscaler to anticipate workload fluctuations and proactively meet SLOs. Data from the Autoscaler is then used by the placement engine to account for heterogeneity and fairness across competing functions, ensuring overall resource efficiency, and minimizing resource fragmentation. We implement our design as a set of extensions to the Knative serverless platform and demonstrate its improvements in terms of resource efficiency, fairness, and response time. Evaluating Mu, shows that it improves fairness by more than 2x over the default Kubernetes placement engine, improves 99th percentile response timesmore »by 62% through better load balancing, reduces SLO violations and resource consumption by pro-active and precise autoscaling. Mu reduces the average number of pods required by more than ~15% for a set of real Azure workloads.« less
  4. By modelling how the probability distributions of individuals’ states evolve as new information flows through a network, belief propagation has broad applicability ranging from image correction to virus propagation to even social networks. Yet, its scant implementations confine themselves largely to the realm of small Bayesian networks. Applications of the algorithm to graphs of large scale are thus unfortunately out of reach. To promote its broad acceptance, we enable belief propagation for both small and large scale graphs utilizing GPU processing. We therefore explore a host of optimizations including a new simple yet extensible input format enabling belief propagation to operate at massive scale, along with significant workload processing updates and meticulous memory management to enable our implementation to outperform prior works in terms of raw execution time and input size on a single machine. Utilizing a suite of parallelization technologies and techniques against a diverse set of graphs, we demonstrate that our implementations can efficiently process even massive networks, achieving up to nearly 121x speedups versus our control yet optimized single threaded implementations while supporting graphs of over ten million nodes in size in contrast to previous works’ support for thousands of nodes using CPU-based multi-core and host solutions.more »To assist in choosing the optimal implementation for a given graph, we provide a promising method utilizing a random forest classifier and graph metadata with a nearly 95% F1-score from our initial benchmarking and is portable to different GPU architectures to achieve over an F1-score of over 72% accuracy and a speedup of nearly 183x versus our control running in this new environment.« less
  5. Edge data centers are an appealing place for telecommunication providers to offer in-network processing such as VPN services, security monitoring, and 5G. Placing these network services closer to users can reduce latency and core network bandwidth, but the deployment of network functions at the edge poses several important challenges. Edge data centers have limited resource capacity, yet network functions are re-source intensive with strict performance requirements. Replicating services at the edge is needed to meet demand, but balancing the load across multiple servers can be challenging due to diverse service costs, server and flow heterogeneity, and dynamic workload conditions. In this paper, we design and implement a model-based load balancer EdgeBalance for edge network data planes. EdgeBalance predicts the CPU demand of incoming traffic and adaptively distributes flows to servers to keep them evenly balanced. We overcome several challenges specific to network processing at the edge to improve throughput and latency over static load balancing and monitoring-based approaches.
  6. Ensuring high scalability (elastic scale-out and consolidation), as well as high availability (failure resiliency) are critical in encouraging adoption of software-based network functions (NFs). In recent years, two paradigms have evolved in terms of the way the NFs manage their state - namely the Stateful (state is coupled with the NF instance) and a Stateless (state is externalized to a datastore) manner. These two paradigms present unique challenges and opportunities for ensuring high scalability and high availability of NFs and NF chains. In this work, we assess the impact on ensuring the correctness of NF state including the implications of non-determinism in packet processing, and carefully analyze and present the benefits and disadvantages of the two state management paradigms. We leverage OpenNetVM and Redis in-memory datastore to implement both state management paradigms and empirically compare the two. Although the stateless paradigm is desirable for elastic scaling, our experimental results show that, even at line-rate packet processing (10 Gbps), stateful NFs can achieve chain-level failover across servers in a LAN incurring less than 10% performance. The state-of-the-art stateless counterparts incur severe throughput penalties. We observe 30-85% overhead on normal processing, depending on the mode of state updated to the externalized datastore.
  7. 5G edge clouds promise a pervasive computational infrastructure a short network hop away, enabling a new breed of smart devices that respond in real-time to their physical surroundings. Unfortunately, today’s operating system designs fail to meet the goals of scalable isolation, dense multi-tenancy, and high performance needed for such applications. In this paper we introduce EdgeOS that emphasizes system-wide isolation as fine-grained as per-client. We propose a novel memory movement accelerator architecture that employs data copying to enforce strong isolation without performance penalties. To support scalable isolation, we introduce a new protection domain implementation that offers lightweight isolation, fast startup and low latency even under high churn. We implement EdgeOS in a microkernel based OS and demonstrate running high scale network middleboxes using the Click software router and endpoint applications such as memcached, a TLS proxy, and neural network inference. We reduce startup latency by 170X compared to Linux processes, and improve latency by three orders of magnitude when running 300 to 1000 edge-cloud memcached instances on one server.