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  1. This paper proposes a home energy management system (HEMS) while considering the residential occupant’s clothing integrated thermal comfort and electrical vehicles (EV) state-of-charge (SOC) concern. An adaptive dynamic program- ming (ADP) based HEMS model is proposed to optimally determine the setpoints of heating, ventilation, air conditioning (HVAC), the donning/doffing decisions for the clothing conditions and charging/discharging of EV while taking into account the uncertainties in outside temperature and EV arrival SOC. We use model predictive control (MPC) to simulate a multi-day energy management of a residential house equipped with the proposed HEMS. The proposed HEMS is compared with a baseline case without the HEMS. The simulation results show that a 47.5% of energy cost saving can be achieved by the proposed HEMS while maintaining satisfactory occupant thermal comfort and negligible EV SOC concerns.
  2. Rooftop photovoltaics (PV) and electrical vehicles (EV) have become more economically viable to residential customers. Most existing home energy management systems (HEMS) only focus on the residential occupants’ thermal comfort in terms of indoor temperature and humidity while neglecting their other behaviors or concerns. This paper aims to integrate residential PV and EVs into the HEMS in an occupant-centric manner while taking into account the occupants’ thermal comfort, clothing behaviors, and concerns on the state-of-charge (SOC) of EVs. A stochastic adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) model was proposed to optimally determine the setpoints of heating, ventilation, air conditioning (HVAC), occupant’s clothing decisions, and the EV’s charge/discharge schedule while considering uncertainties in the outside temperature, PV generation, and EV’s arrival SOC. The nonlinear and nonconvex thermal comfort model, EV SOC concern model, and clothing behavior model were holistically embedded in the ADP-HEMS model. A model predictive control framework was further proposed to simulate a residential house under the time of use tariff, such that it continually updates with optimal appliance schedules decisions passed to the house model. Cosimulations were carried out to compare the proposed HEMS with a baseline model that represents the current operational practice. The result shows that the proposedmore »HEMS can reduce the energy cost by 68.5% while retaining the most comfortable thermal level and negligible EV SOC concerns considering the occupant’s behaviors.« less
  3. Abstract

    Spintronics applications of thin‐film magnets require control and design of specific magnetic properties. Exchange bias, originating from the pinning of spins in a ferromagnet by these of an antiferromagnet, is a part of the highly important elements for spintronics applications. Here, an exchange bias of ≈90 mT in a van der Waals ferromagnet encapsulated by two antiferromagnets at 5 K, the value of which is highly tunable by the field coolings, is reported. The non‐antisymmetric dependence of exchange bias on field cooling is explained through considering an uncompensated interfacial magnetic layer of an antiferromagnet with a noncollinear spin texture, and a weak antiferromagnetic order in the oxidized layer, at two ferromagnet/antiferromagnet interfaces. This work opens up new routes toward designing and controlling 2D spintronic devices made of atomically thin van der Waals magnets.

  4. Abstract The promise of high-density and low-energy-consumption devices motivates the search for layered structures that stabilize chiral spin textures such as topologically protected skyrmions. At the same time, recently discovered long-range intrinsic magnetic orders in the two-dimensional van der Waals materials provide a new platform for the discovery of novel physics and effects. Here we demonstrate the Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction and Néel-type skyrmions are induced at the WTe 2 /Fe 3 GeTe 2 interface. Transport measurements show the topological Hall effect in this heterostructure for temperatures below 100 K. Furthermore, Lorentz transmission electron microscopy is used to directly image Néel-type skyrmion lattice and the stripe-like magnetic domain structures as well. The interfacial coupling induced Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction is estimated to have a large energy of 1.0 mJ m −2 . This work paves a path towards the skyrmionic devices based on van der Waals layered heterostructures.
  5. Abstract

    Recent advances in using topological insulators (TIs) with ferromagnets (FMs) at room temperature have opened an innovative avenue in spin‐orbit torque (SOT) nonvolatile magnetic memory and low dissipation electronics. However, direct integration of TIs with perpendicularly magnetized FM, while retaining an extraordinary charge‐to‐spin conversion efficiency (>100%), remains a major challenge. In addition, the indispensable thermal compatibility with modern CMOS technologies has not yet been demonstrated in TI‐based structures. Here, high‐quality integration of a perpendicularly magnetized CoFeB/MgO system with TI through a Mo insertion layer is achieved and efficient current‐induced magnetization switching at ambient temperature is demonstrated. The calibrated energy efficiency of TIs is at least 1 order magnitude larger than those found in heavy metals. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the perpendicular anisotropy of the integrated CoFeB/MgO system and the current‐induced magnetization switching behavior are well‐preserved after annealing at>350 °C, offering a wide temperature window for thermal treatments. This thermal compatibility with the modern CMOS back‐end‐of‐line process achieved in these TI‐based structures paves the way toward TI‐based low‐dissipation spintronic applications.

  6. Abstract

    Integration of a quantum anomalous Hall insulator with a magnetically ordered material provides an additional degree of freedom through which the resulting exotic quantum states can be controlled. Here, an experimental observation is reported of the quantum anomalous Hall effect in a magnetically‐doped topological insulator grown on the antiferromagnetic insulator Cr2O3. The exchange coupling between the two materials is investigated using field‐cooling‐dependent magnetometry and polarized neutron reflectometry. Both techniques reveal strong interfacial interaction between the antiferromagnetic order of the Cr2O3and the magnetic topological insulator, manifested as an exchange bias when the sample is field‐cooled under an out‐of‐plane magnetic field, and an exchange spring‐like magnetic depth profile when the system is magnetized within the film plane. These results identify antiferromagnetic insulators as suitable candidates for the manipulation of magnetic and topological order in topological insulator films.