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  1. Nanostructured molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin films were grown on a nanohole-patterned silicon substrate using plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition. A nanoscale hole-patterned silicon substrate was fabricated for the growth of MoS2 film using the self-assembly-based nanofabrication method. The nanoscale holes can significantly increase the surface area of the substrate while the formation and growth of nanostructures normally start at the surface of the substrate. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas was used as the S source in the growth of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) while molybdenum (V) chloride (MoCl5) powder was used as the Mo source. The MoS2 film had a stoichiometric ratio of 1 (Mo) to 2 (S), and had peaks of E12g and A1g, which represent the in-plane and out-plane vibration modes of the Mo–S bond, respectively. It was found that the MoS2 film grown in the nanoscale hole, especially at the wall of the hole, has more hexagonal-like structures due to the effects of nanoscale space confinement and the nanoscale interface although the film shows an amorphous structure. Post-growth high-temperature annealing ranging from 800 to 900 °C produced local crystalline structures in the film, which are compatible with those reported by other researchers. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  2. Abstract In this paper, natural organic honey embedded with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was studied as a resistive switching material for biodegradable nonvolatile memory in emerging neuromorphic systems. CNTs were dispersed in a honey-water solution with the concentration of 0.2 wt% CNT and 30 wt% honey. The final honey-CNT-water mixture was spin-coated and dried into a thin film sandwiched in between Cu bottom electrode and Al top electrode to form a honey-CNT based resistive switching memory (RSM). Surface morphology, electrical characteristics and current conduction mechanism were investigated. The results show that although CNTs formed agglomerations in the dried honey-CNT film, both switching speed and the stability in SET and RESET process of honey-CNT RSM were improved. The mechanism of current conduction in CNT is governed by Ohm’s law in low-resistance state and the low-voltage range in high-resistance state, but transits to the space charge limited conduction at high voltages approaching the SET voltage. 
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  3. In this paper, carbon thin films were grown using the plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD). Methane (CH4) was used as the carbon precursor to grow the carbon thin film. The grown film was analyzed by the high-resolution transmission electron micrograph (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, and Raman spectrum analysis. The analyses show that the PE-ALD-grown carbon film has an amorphous structure. It was found that the existence of defective sites (nanoscale holes or cracks) on the substrate of copper foil could facilitate the formation of nanolayered carbon films. The mechanism for the formation of nanolayered carbon film in the nanoscale holes was discussed. This finding could be used for the controlled growth of nanolayered carbon films or other two-dimensional nanomaterials while combining with modern nanopatterning techniques. 
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  4. In this paper, we report the wafer-scale fabrication of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs) with the dielectrophoresis (DEP) method. Semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were positioned as the active channel material in the fabrication of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs) with dielectrophoresis (DEP). The drain-source current (IDS) was measured as a function of the drain-source voltage (VDS) and gate-source voltage (VGS) from each CNTFET on the fabricated wafer. The IDS on/off ratio was derived for each CNTFET. It was found that 87% of the fabricated CNTFETs was functional, and that among the functional CNTFETs, 30% of the CNTFETs had an IDS on/off ratio larger than 20 while 70% of the CNTFETs had an IDS on/off ratio lower than 20. The highest IDS on/off ratio was about 490. The DEP-based positioning of carbon nanotubes is simple and effective, and the DEP-based device fabrication steps are compatible with Si technology processes and could lead to the wafer-scale fabrication of CNT electronic devices. 
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  5. We report the growth of nanoscale hafnium dioxide (HfO2) and zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) thin films using remote plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD), and the fabrication of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits using the HfO2 and ZrO2 thin films as the gate oxide. Tetrakis (dimethylamino) hafnium (Hf[N(CH3)2]4) and tetrakis (dimethylamino) zirconium (IV) (Zr[N(CH3)2]4) were used as the precursors, while O2 gas was used as the reactive gas. The PE-ALD-grown HfO2 and ZrO2 thin films were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The XPS measurements show that the ZrO2 film has the atomic concentrations of 34% Zr, 2% C, and 64% O while the HfO2 film has the atomic concentrations of 29% Hf, 11% C, and 60% O. The HRTEM and XRD measurements show both HfO2 and ZrO2 films have polycrystalline structures. n-channel and p-channel metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (nFETs and pFETs), CMOS inverters, and CMOS ring oscillators were fabricated to test the quality of the HfO2 and ZrO2 thin films as the gate oxide. Current-voltage (IV) curves, transfer characteristics, and oscillation waveforms were measured from the fabricated transistors, inverters, and oscillators, respectively. The experimental results measured from the HfO2 and ZrO2 thin films were compared. 
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