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  1. Understanding carrier recombination processes in metal halide perovskites is fundamentally important to further improving the efficiency of perovskite solar cells, yet the accurate recombination velocity at grain boundaries (GBs) has not been determined. Here, we report the determination of carrier recombination velocities at GBs (SGB) of polycrystalline perovskites by mapping the transient photoluminescence pattern change induced by the nonradiative recombination of carriers at GBs. Charge recombination at GBs is revealed to be even stronger than at surfaces of unpassivated films, with averageSGBreaching 2200 to 3300 cm/s. Regular surface treatments do not passivate GBs because of the absence of contact at GBs. We find a surface treatment using tributyl(methyl)phosphonium dimethyl phosphate that can penetrate into GBs by partially dissolving GBs and converting it into one-dimensional perovskites. It reduces the averageSGBby four times, with the lowestSGBof 410 cm/s, which is comparable to surface recombination velocities after passivation.

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  2. Abstract

    The cloud imaging and particle size (CIPS) instrument onboard the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere satellite provides images of gravity waves (GWs) near the stratopause and lowermost mesosphere (altitudes of 50–55 km). GW identification is based on Rayleigh Albedo Anomaly (RAA) variances, which are derived from GW‐induced fluctuations in Rayleigh scattering at 265 nm. Based on 3 years of CIPS RAA variance data from 2019 to 2022, we report for the first time the seasonal distribution of GWs entering the mesosphere with high (7.5 km) horizontal resolution on a near‐global scale. Seasonally averaged GW variances clearly show spatial and temporal patterns of GW activity, mainly due to the seasonal variation of primary GW sources such as convection, the polar vortices and flow over mountains. Measurements of stratospheric GWs derived from Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) observations of 4.3 μm brightness temperature perturbations within the same 3‐year time range are compared to the CIPS results. The comparisons show that locations of GW hotspots are similar in the CIPS and AIRS observations. Variability in GW variances and the monthly changes in background zonal wind suggest a strong GW‐wind correlation. This study demonstrates the utility of the CIPS GW variance data set for statistical investigations of GWs in the lowermost mesosphere, as well as provides a reference for location/time selection for GW case studies.

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  3. Sparse representation based classification (SRC) methods have achieved remarkable results. SRC, however, still suffer from requiring enough training samples, insufficient use of test samples, and instability of representation. In this paper, a stable inverse projection representation based classification (IPRC) is presented to tackle these problems by effectively using test samples. An IPR is first proposed and its feasibility and stability are analyzed. A classification criterion named category contribution rate is constructed to match the IPR and complete classification. Moreover, a statistical measure is introduced to quantify the stability of representation-based classification methods. Based on the IPRC technique, a robust tumor recognition framework is presented by interpreting microarray gene expression data, where a two-stage hybrid gene selection method is introduced to select informative genes. Finally, the functional analysis of candidate's pathogenicity-related genes is given. Extensive experiments on six public tumor microarray gene expression datasets demonstrate the proposed technique is competitive with state-of-the-art methods. 
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  4. Abstract

    In this study, we analyze the thermospheric density data provided by the Gravity Field and Steady‐State Ocean Circulation Explorer during June–August 2010–2013 at ∼260 km altitude and the Challenging Minisatellite Payload during June–August 2004–2007 at ∼370 km altitude to study high latitude traveling atmospheric disturbances (TADs) in austral winter. We extract the TADs along the satellite tracks from the density for varyingKp, and linearly extrapolate the TAD distribution toKp = 0; we call these the geomagnetic “quiet time” results here. We find that the quiet time spatial distribution of TADs depends on the spatial scale (along‐track horizontal wavelength) and altitude. Atz∼ 260 km, TADs with ≤ 330 km are seen mainly around and slightly downstream of the Southern Andes‐Antarctic region, while TADs with > 800 km are distributed fairly evenly around the geographic South pole at latitudes ≥60°S. Atz∼ 370 km, TADs with ≤ 330 km are relatively weak and are distributed fairly evenly over Antarctica, while TADs with > 330 km make up a bipolar distribution. For the latter, the larger size lobe is centered at ∼60°S, and is located around, downstream and somewhat upstream of the Andes/Antarctic Peninsula, while the smaller lobe is located over the Antarctic continent at 90°–150°E. We also find that the TAD morphology forKp ≥ 2 and > 330 km depends strongly on geomagnetic activity, likely due to auroral activity, with greatly enhanced TAD amplitudes with increasingKp.

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  5. Atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs) are among the important energy and momentum transfer mechanisms from the troposphere to the middle and upper atmosphere. Despite their understood importance in governing the structure and dynamics of these regions, mesospheric AGWs remain poorly measured globally, and largely unconstrained in numerical models. Since late 2011, the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Visible/Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) day–night band (DNB) has observed global AGWs near the mesopause by virtue of its sensitivity to weak emissions of the OH* Meinel bands. The wave features, detectable at 0.75 km spatial resolution across its 3000 km imagery swath, are often confused by the upwelling emission of city lights and clouds reflecting downwelling nightglow. The Ionosphere, Mesosphere, upper Atmosphere and Plasmasphere (IMAP)/ Visible and near-Infrared Spectral Imager (VISI) O2 band, an independent measure of the AGW structures in nightglow based on the International Space Station (ISS) during 2012–2015, contains much less noise from the lower atmosphere. However, VISI offers much coarser resolution of 14–16 km and a narrower swath width of 600 km. Here, we present preliminary results of comparisons between VIIRS/DNB and VISI observations of AGWs, focusing on several concentric AGW events excited by the thunderstorms over Eastern Asia in August 2013. The comparisons point toward suggested improvements for future spaceborne airglow sensor designs targeting AGWs. 
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  6. Abstract

    We analyze quiet‐time data from the Gravity Field and Ocean Circulation Explorer satellite as it overpassed the Southern Andes atz≃275 km on 5 July 2010 at 23 UT. We extract the 20 largest traveling atmospheric disturbances from the density perturbations and cross‐track winds using Fourier analysis. Using gravity wave (GW) dissipative theory that includes realistic molecular viscosity, we search parameter space to determine which hot spot traveling atmospheric disturbances are GWs. This results in the identification of 17 GWs having horizontal wavelengthsλH = 170–1,850 km, intrinsic periodsτIr = 11–54 min, intrinsic horizontal phase speedscIH = 245–630 m/s, and density perturbations 0.03–7%. We unambiguously determine the propagation direction for 11 of these GWs and find that most had large meridional components to their propagation directions. Using reverse ray tracing, we find that 10 of these GWs must have been created in the mesosphere or thermosphere. We show that mountain waves (MWs) were observed in the stratosphere earlier that day and that these MWs saturated atz∼ 70–75 km from convective instability. We suggest that these 10 Gravity Field and Ocean Circulation Explorer hot spot GWs are likely tertiary (or higher‐order) GWs created from the dissipation of secondary GWs excited by the local body forces created from MW breaking. We suggest that the other GW is likely a secondary or tertiary (or higher‐order) GW. This study strongly suggests that the hot spot GWs over the Southern Andes in the quiet‐time middle winter thermosphere cannot be successfully modeled by conventional global circulation models where GWs are parameterized and launched in the troposphere or stratosphere.

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  7. Abstract

    Layered perovskites have been employed for various optoelectronic devices including solar cells and light‐emitting diodes for improved stability, which need exciton transport along both the in‐plane and the out‐of‐plane directions. However, it is not clear yet what determines the exciton transport along the in‐plane direction, which is important to understand its impact toward electronic devices. Here, by employing both steady‐state and transient photoluminescence mapping, it is found that in‐plane exciton diffusivities in layered perovskites are sensitive to both the number of layers and organic cations. Apart from exciton–phonon coupling, the octahedral distortion is revealed to significantly affect the exciton diffusion process, determined by temperature‐dependent photoluminescence, light‐intensity‐dependent time‐resolved photoluminescence, and density function theory calculations. A simple fluorine substitution to phenethylammonium for the organic cations to tune the structural rigidity and octahedral distortion yields a record exciton diffusivity of 1.91 cm2s−1and a diffusion length of 405 nm along the in‐plane direction. This study provides guidance to manipulate exciton diffusion by modifying organic cations in layered perovskites.

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  8. Abstract

    During 30 September to 9 October 2016, Hurricane Matthew traversed the Caribbean Sea to the east coast of the United States. During its period of greatest intensity, in the central Caribbean, Matthew excited a large number of concentric gravity waves (GWs or CGWs). In this paper, we report on hurricane‐generated CGWs observed in both the stratosphere and mesosphere from spaceborne satellites and in the ionosphere by ground Global Positioning System receivers. We found CGWs with horizontal wavelengths of ~200–300 km in the stratosphere (height of ~30–40 km) and in the airglow layer of the mesopause (height of ~85–90 km), and we found concentric traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs or CTIDs) with horizontal wavelengths of ~250–350 km in the ionosphere (height of ~100–400 km). The observed TIDs lasted for more than several hours on 1, 2, and 7 October 2016. We also briefly discuss the vertical and horizontal propagation of the Hurricane Matthew‐induced GWs and TIDs. This study shows that Hurricane Matthew induced significant dynamical coupling between the troposphere and the entire middle and upper atmosphere via GWs. It is the first comprehensive satellite analysis of gravity wave propagation generated by hurricane event from the troposphere through the stratosphere and mesosphere into the ionosphere.

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