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  1. In ferromagnetic systems lacking inversion symmetry, an applied electric field can control the ferromagnetic order parameters through the spin-orbit torque. The prototypical example is a bilayer heterostructure composed of a ferromagnet and a heavy metal that acts as a spin current source. In addition to such bilayers, spin-orbit coupling can mediate spin-orbit torques in ferromagnets that lack bulk inversion symmetry. A recently discovered example is the two-dimensional monolayer ferromagnet Fe3GeTe2. In this paper, we use first-principles calculations to study the spin-orbit torque and ensuing magnetic dynamics in this material. By expanding the torque versus magnetization direction as a series of vector spherical harmonics, we find that higher order terms (up to ℓ=4) are significant and play important roles in the magnetic dynamics. They give rise to deterministic, magnetic field-free electrical switching of perpendicular magnetization. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
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  7. Ye, Qiang (Ed.)
    An inexact rational Krylov subspace method is studied to solve large-scale nonsymmetric eigenvalue problems. Each iteration (outer step) of the rational Krylov subspace method requires solution to a shifted linear system to enlarge the subspace, performed by an iterative linear solver for large-scale problems. Errors are introduced at each outer step if these linear systems are solved approx- imately by iterative methods (inner step), and they accumulate in the rational Krylov subspace. In this article, we derive an upper bound on the errors intro- duced at each outer step to maintain the same convergence as exact rational Krylov subspace method for approximating an invariant subspace. Since this bound is inversely proportional to the current eigenresidual norm of the target invariant subspace, the tolerance of iterative linear solves at each outer step can be relaxed with the outer iteration progress. A restarted variant of the inexact rational Krylov subspace method is also proposed. Numerical experiments show the effectiveness of relaxing the inner tolerance to save computational cost. 
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