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  1. ABSTRACT

    We present the analysis of cloud–cloud collision (CCC) process in the Galactic molecular complex S235. Our new CO observations performed with the PMO-13.7 m telescope reveal two molecular clouds, namely the S235-Main and the S235-ABC, with ∼4 km s−1 velocity separation. The bridge feature, the possible colliding interface and the complementary distribution of the two clouds are significant observational signatures of cloud–cloud collision in S235. The most direct evidence of cloud–cloud collision process in S235 is that the S235-Main (in a distance of 1547$^{+44}_{-43}$ pc) and S235-ABC (1567$^{+33}_{-39}$ pc) meet at almost the same position (within 1σ error range) at a supersonic relative speed. We identified ten 13CO clumps from PMO-13.7 m observations, 22 dust cores from the archival SCUBA-2 data, and 550 YSOs from NIR–MIR data. 63 per cent of total YSOs are clustering in seven MST groups (M1−M7). The tight association between the YSO groups (M1 $\&$ M7) and the bridge feature suggests that the CCC process triggers star formation there. The collisional impact subregion (the South) shows 3 ∼ 5 times higher CFE and SFE (average value of 12.3 and 10.6 per cent, respectively) than the non-collisional impact subregion (2.4 and 2.6 per cent, respectively), suggesting that the CCC process may have enhanced the CFE and SFE of the clouds compared to those without collision influence.

     
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  2. We study the quantum critical behavior in a multiconnected Jaynes-Cummings lattice using the density-matrix renormalization group method, where cavity polaritons exhibit a Mott-insulator-to-superfluid phase transition. We calculate the phase boundaries and the quantum critical points. 
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