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  1. Herberstein, Marie Elisabeth (Ed.)
  2. Abstract. Carbonaceous aerosols have great influence on the air quality, human healthand climate change. Except for organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), brown carbon (BrC) mainly originates from biomass burning as a group of OC, with strong absorption from the visible to near-ultravioletwavelengths, and makes a considerable contribution to global warming. Largenumbers of studies have reported long-term observation of OC and ECconcentrations throughout the world, but studies of BrC based on long-termobservations are rather limited. In this study, we established atwo-wavelength method (658 and 405 nm) applied in the Sunset thermal–optical carbon analyzer. Based on a 1-year observation, we firstly investigated the characteristics, meteorological impact and transportmore »process of OC and EC. Since BrC absorbs light at 405 nm more effectively than 658 nm, we defined the enhanced concentrations (dEC = EC405 nm − EC658 nm) and gave the possibility of providing an indicator of BrC. The receptor model and MODIS fire information were used to identify the presence of BrC aerosols. Our results showed that the carbonaceous aerosol concentrations were the highest in winter and lowest in summer. Traffic emission was an important source of carbonaceous aerosols in Nanjing. Receptor model results showed that strong local emissions were found for OC and EC; however, dEC was significantly affected by regional or long-range transport.The dEC/OC and OC/EC ratios showed similar diurnal patterns, and the dEC/OC increased when the OC/EC ratios increased, indicating strong secondarysources or biomass burning contributions to dEC. A total of two biomass burning events both in summer and winter were analyzed, and the results showed that the dEC concentrations were obviously higher on biomass burning days; however, no similar levels of the OC and EC concentrations were found both in biomass burning days and normal days in summer, suggesting that biomass burning emissions made a great contribution to dEC, and the sources of OC and EC were more complicated. Large number of open fire counts from the northwestern and southwestern areas of the study site were observed in winter and significantly contributed to OC, EC and dEC. In addition, the nearby Yangtze River Deltaarea was one of the main potential source areas of dEC, suggesting thatanthropogenic emissions could also be important sources of dEC. The resultsproved that dEC can be an indicator of BrC on biomass burning days. Ourmodified two-wavelength instrument provided more information than thetraditional single-wavelength thermal–optical carbon analyzer and gave a new idea about the measurement of BrC; the application of dEC data needs to be further investigated.« less
  3. We present ALMA observations of a merging system at z  ∼ 4.57, observed as a part of the ALMA Large Program to INvestigate [CII] at Early times (ALPINE) survey. Combining ALMA [CII]158  μ m and far-infrared continuum data with multi-wavelength ancillary data, we find that the system is composed of two massive ( M ⋆  ≳ 10 10   M ⊙ ) star-forming galaxies experiencing a major merger (stellar mass ratio r mass  ≳ 0.9) at close spatial (∼13 kpc; projected) and velocity (Δ v  <  300 km s −1 ) separations, and two additional faint narrow [CII]-emitting satellites. The overall system belongs to amore »larger scale protocluster environment and is coincident to one of its overdensity peaks. Additionally, ALMA reveals the presence of [CII] emission arising from a circumgalactic gas structure, extending up to a diameter-scale of ∼30 kpc. Our morpho-spectral decomposition analysis shows that about 50% of the total flux resides between the individual galaxy components, in a metal-enriched gaseous envelope characterised by a disturbed morphology and complex kinematics. Similarly to observations of shock-excited [CII] emitted from tidal tails in local groups, our results can be interpreted as a possible signature of interstellar gas stripped by strong gravitational interactions, with a possible contribution from material ejected by galactic outflows and emission triggered by star formation in small faint satellites. Our findings suggest that mergers could be an efficient mechanism of gas mixing in the circumgalactic medium around high- z galaxies, and thus play a key role in the galaxy baryon cycle at early epochs.« less
  4. We present the first [C II] 158 μ m luminosity function (LF) at z  ∼ 5 from a sample of serendipitous lines detected in the ALMA Large Program to INvestigate [C II] at Early times (ALPINE). A study of the 118 ALPINE pointings revealed several serendipitous lines. Based on their fidelity, we selected 14 lines for the final catalog. According to the redshift of their counterparts, we identified eight out of 14 detections as [C II] lines at z  ∼ 5, along with two as CO transitions at lower redshifts. The remaining four lines have an elusive identification in the available catalogsmore »and we considered them as [C II] candidates. We used the eight confirmed [C II] and the four [C II] candidates to build one of the first [C II] LFs at z  ∼ 5. We found that 11 out of these 12 sources have a redshift very similar to that of the ALPINE target in the same pointing, suggesting the presence of overdensities around the targets. Therefore, we split the sample in two (a “clustered” and “field” subsample) according to their redshift separation and built two separate LFs. Our estimates suggest that there could be an evolution of the [C II] LF between z  ∼ 5 and z  ∼ 0. By converting the [C II] luminosity to the star-formation rate, we evaluated the cosmic star-formation rate density (SFRD) at z  ∼ 5. The clustered sample results in a SFRD ∼10 times higher than previous measurements from UV–selected galaxies. On the other hand, from the field sample (likely representing the average galaxy population), we derived a SFRD ∼1.6 higher compared to current estimates from UV surveys but compatible within the errors. Because of the large uncertainties, observations of larger samples will be necessary to better constrain the SFRD at z  ∼ 5. This study represents one of the first efforts aimed at characterizing the demography of [C II] emitters at z  ∼ 5 using a mm selection of galaxies.« less