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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 24, 2025
  2. Abstract

    Porous carbons are the active materials of choice for supercapacitor applications because of their power capability, long-term cycle stability, and wide operating temperatures. However, the development of carbon active materials with improved physicochemical and electrochemical properties is generally carried out via time-consuming and cost-ineffective experimental processes. In this regard, machine-learning technology provides a data-driven approach to examine previously reported research works to find the critical features for developing ideal carbon materials for supercapacitors. Here, we report the design of a machine-learning-derived activation strategy that uses sodium amide and cross-linked polymer precursors to synthesize highly porous carbons (i.e., with specific surface areas > 4000 m2/g). Tuning the pore size and oxygen content of the carbonaceous materials, we report a highly porous carbon-base electrode with 0.7 mg/cm2of electrode mass loading that exhibits a high specific capacitance of 610 F/g in 1 M H2SO4. This result approaches the specific capacitance of a porous carbon electrode predicted by the machine learning approach. We also investigate the charge storage mechanism and electrolyte transport properties via step potential electrochemical spectroscopy and quasielastic neutron scattering measurements.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  3. Bipolar porous polymers bearing carbonyl and amine groups were designed and synthesized as cathode materials in Na-ion and K-ion batteries, demonstrating great promise for high-performance and sustainable batteries.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 8, 2024
  4. Abstract

    Redox‐active polymers (RAPs) are promising organic electrode materials for affordable and sustainable batteries due to their flexible chemical structures and negligible solubility in the electrolyte. Developing high‐dimensional RAPs with porous structures and crosslinkers can further improve their stability and redox capability by reducing the solubility and enhancing reaction kinetics. This work reports two three‐dimensional (3D) RAPs as stable organic cathodes in Na‐ion batteries (NIBs) and K‐ion batteries (KIBs). Carbonyl functional groups are incorporated into the repeating units of the RAPs by the polycondensation of Tetrakis(4‐aminophenyl)methane and two different dianhydrides. The RAPs with interconnected 3D extended conjugation structures undergo multi‐electron redox reactions and exhibit high performance in both NIBs and KIBs in terms of long cycle life (up to 8000 cycles) and fast charging capability (up to 2 A g−1). The results demonstrate that developing 3D RAPs is an effective strategy to achieve high‐performance, affordable, and sustainable NIBs and KIBs.

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  5. Abstract

    Developing low‐voltage carboxylate anode materials is critical for achieving low‐cost, high‐performance, and sustainable Na‐ion batteries (NIBs). However, the structure design rationale and structure‐performance correlation for organic carboxylates in NIBs remains elusive. Herein, the spatial effect on the performance of carboxylate anode materials is studied by introducing heteroatoms in the conjugation structure and manipulating the positions of carboxylate groups in the aromatic rings. Planar and twisted organic carboxylates are designed and synthesized to gain insight into the impact of geometric structures to the electrochemical performance of carboxylate anodes in NIBs. Among the carboxylates, disodium 2,2’‐bipyridine‐5,5’‐dicarboxylate (2255‐Na) with a planar structure outperforms the others in terms of highest specific capacity (210 mAh g−1), longest cycle life (2000 cycles), and best rate capability (up to 5 A g−1). The cyclic stability and redox mechanism of 2255‐Na in NIBs are exploited by various characterization techniques. Moreover, high‐temperature (up to 100 °C) and all‐organic batteries based on a 2255‐Na anode, a polyaniline (PANI) cathode, and an ether‐based electrolyte are achieved and exhibited exceptional electrochemical performance. Therefore, this work demonstrates that designing organic carboxylates with extended planar conjugation structures is an effective strategy to achieve high‐performance and sustainable NIBs.

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  6. null (Ed.)
  7. Abstract

    Definitive diagnosis to sudden cardiac death (SCD) is often challenging since the postmortem examination on SCD victims could hardly demonstrate an adequate cause of death. It is therefore important to uncover the inherited risk component to SCD. Signal transducer and activators of transcription 5 A (STAT5A) is a member of the STAT family and a transcription factor that is activated by many cell ligands and associated with various cardiovascular processes. In this study, we performed a systematic variant screening on the STAT5A to filter potential functional genetic variations. Based on the screening results, an insertion/deletion polymorphism (rs3833144) in 3’UTR of STAT5A was selected as the candidate variant. A total of 159 SCD cases and 668 SCD matched healthy controls was enrolled to perform a case-control study and evaluate the association between rs3833144 and SCD susceptibility in Chinese populations. Logistic regression analysis showed that the deletion allele of rs3833144 had significantly increased the SCD risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.54; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.18–2.01; P = 0.000955). Further genotype-expression eQTL analysis showed that samples with deletion allele appeared to lower expression of STAT5A, and in silico prediction suggested the local 3 D structure changes of STAT5A mRNA caused by the variant. On the other hand, the bioinformatic analysis presented that promoters of RARA and PTGES3L-AARSD1 could interact with rs3833144, and eQTL analysis showed the higher expression of both genes in samples with deletion allele. Dual-luciferase activity assays also suggested the significant regulatory role of rs3833144 in gene transcription. Our current data thus suggested a possible involvement of rs3833144 to SCD predisposition in Chinese populations and rs3833144 with potential function roles may become a candidate marker for SCD diagnosis and prevention.

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