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  1. Abstract

    Definitive diagnosis to sudden cardiac death (SCD) is often challenging since the postmortem examination on SCD victims could hardly demonstrate an adequate cause of death. It is therefore important to uncover the inherited risk component to SCD. Signal transducer and activators of transcription 5 A (STAT5A) is a member of the STAT family and a transcription factor that is activated by many cell ligands and associated with various cardiovascular processes. In this study, we performed a systematic variant screening on the STAT5A to filter potential functional genetic variations. Based on the screening results, an insertion/deletion polymorphism (rs3833144) in 3’UTR of STAT5A was selected as the candidate variant. A total of 159 SCD cases and 668 SCD matched healthy controls was enrolled to perform a case-control study and evaluate the association between rs3833144 and SCD susceptibility in Chinese populations. Logistic regression analysis showed that the deletion allele of rs3833144 had significantly increased the SCD risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.54; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.18–2.01; P = 0.000955). Further genotype-expression eQTL analysis showed that samples with deletion allele appeared to lower expression of STAT5A, and in silico prediction suggested the local 3 D structure changes of STAT5A mRNA caused by the variant. Onmore »the other hand, the bioinformatic analysis presented that promoters of RARA and PTGES3L-AARSD1 could interact with rs3833144, and eQTL analysis showed the higher expression of both genes in samples with deletion allele. Dual-luciferase activity assays also suggested the significant regulatory role of rs3833144 in gene transcription. Our current data thus suggested a possible involvement of rs3833144 to SCD predisposition in Chinese populations and rs3833144 with potential function roles may become a candidate marker for SCD diagnosis and prevention.

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  2. null (Ed.)
    Changes in the local atomic arrangement in a crystal caused by lattice-mismatch-induced strain can efficiently regulate the performance of electrocatalysts for zinc–air batteries (ZABs) in many manners, mainly due to modulated electronic structure configurations that affect the adsorption energies for oxygen-intermediates formed during oxygen reduction and evolution reactions (ORR and OER). However, the application of strain engineering in electrocatalysis has been limited by the strain relaxation caused by structural instability such as dissolution and destruction, leading to insufficient durability towards the ORR/OER. Herein, we propose a doping strategy to modulate the phase transition and formation of self-supported cobalt fluoride–sulfide (CoFS) nanoporous films using a low amount of copper (Cu) as a dopant. This well-defined Cu–CoFS heterostructure overcomes the obstacle of structural instability. Our study of the proposed Cu–CoFS also helps establish the structure–property relationship of strained electrocatalysts by unraveling the role of local strain in regulating the electronic structure of the catalyst. As a proof-of-concept, the Cu–CoFS electrocatalyst with doping-modulated strain exhibited superior onset potentials of 0.91 V and 1.49 V for the ORR and OER, respectively, surpassing commercial Pt/C@RuO 2 and benchmarking non-platinum group metal (non-PGM) catalysts. ZABs with the Cu–CoFS catalyst delivered excellent charge/discharge cycling performance with anmore »extremely low voltage gap of 0.5 V at a current density of 10 mA cm −2 and successively 0.93 V at a high current density of 100 mA cm −2 and afforded an outstanding peak power density of 255 mW cm −2 .« less
  3. We investigated genome folding across the eukaryotic tree of life. We find two types of three-dimensional (3D) genome architectures at the chromosome scale. Each type appears and disappears repeatedly during eukaryotic evolution. The type of genome architecture that an organism exhibits correlates with the absence of condensin II subunits. Moreover, condensin II depletion converts the architecture of the human genome to a state resembling that seen in organisms such as fungi or mosquitoes. In this state, centromeres cluster together at nucleoli, and heterochromatin domains merge. We propose a physical model in which lengthwise compaction of chromosomes by condensin II during mitosis determines chromosome-scale genome architecture, with effects that are retained during the subsequent interphase. This mechanism likely has been conserved since the last common ancestor of all eukaryotes.