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Creators/Authors contains: "Yu, Yan"

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  1. Protein lipidation plays critical roles in regulating protein function and localization. However, the chemical diversity and specificity of fatty acyl group utilization have not been investigated using untargeted approaches, and it is unclear to what extent structures and biosynthetic origins ofS-acyl moieties differ fromN- andO-fatty acylation. Here, we show that fatty acylation patterns inCaenorhabditis elegansdiffer markedly between different amino acid residues. Hydroxylamine capture revealed predominant cysteineS-acylation with 15-methylhexadecanoic acid (isoC17:0), a monomethyl branched-chain fatty acid (mmBCFA) derived from endogenous leucine catabolism. In contrast, enzymatic protein hydrolysis showed that N-terminal glycine was acylated almost exclusively with straight-chain myristic acid, whereas lysine was acylated preferentially with two different mmBCFAs and serine was acylated promiscuously with a broad range of fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic acid. Global profiling of fatty acylated proteins using a set of click chemistry–capable alkyne probes for branched- and straight-chain fatty acids uncovered 1,013S-acylated proteins and 510 hydroxylamine-resistantN- orO-acylated proteins. Subsets ofS-acylated proteins were labeled almost exclusively by either a branched-chain or a straight-chain probe, demonstrating acylation specificity at the protein level. Acylation specificity was confirmed for selected examples, including theS-acyltransferase DHHC-10. Last, homology searches for the identified acylated proteins revealed a high degree of conservation of acylation site patterns across metazoa. Our results show that protein fatty acylation patterns integrate distinct branches of lipid metabolism in a residue- and protein-specific manner, providing a basis for mechanistic studies at both the amino acid and protein levels.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 30, 2025
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 10, 2024
  3. Abstract

    Immune cells degrade internalized pathogens in phagosomes through sequential biochemical changes. The degradation must be fast enough for effective infection control. The presumption is that each phagosome degrades cargos autonomously with a distinct but stochastic kinetic rate. However, here we show that the degradation kinetics of individual phagosomes is not stochastic but coupled to their intracellular motility. By engineering RotSensors that are optically anisotropic, magnetic responsive, and fluorogenic in response to degradation activities in phagosomes, we monitored cargo degradation kinetics in single phagosomes simultaneously with their translational and rotational dynamics. We show that phagosomes that move faster centripetally are more likely to encounter and fuse with lysosomes, thereby acidifying faster and degrading cargos more efficiently. The degradation rates increase nearly linearly with the translational and rotational velocities of phagosomes. Our results indicate that the centripetal motion of phagosomes functions as a clock for controlling the progression of cargo degradation.

     
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