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  1. null (Ed.)
  2. Abstract

    The angular dependence of the microwave-driven spin rectification (SR) effect in single crystalline Co0.5Fe0.5alloy film is systematically investigated. Due to the strong current-orientation dependent anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR), the SR effects in CoFe film strongly deviate from the ordinary sin 2φMcosφMrelation withφMdefined as the magnetization angle away from the current. A giant Gilbert damping anisotropy in the CoFe film with a maximum–minimum ratio of 520% is observed, which can impose a strong anisotropy onto magnetic susceptibility. The observed unusual angular dependence can be well explained by the theory including current-orientation dependent AMR and anisotropic magnetic susceptibility. Our work also suggests that the strong current-orientation dependent AMR in single crystalline CoFe film could exist up to the gigahertz frequency range.

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  3. null (Ed.)
  4. Abstract

    Porous graphene and other atomically thin 2D materials are regarded as highly promising membrane materials for high‐performance gas separations due to their atomic thickness, large‐scale synthesizability, excellent mechanical strength, and chemical stability. When these atomically thin materials contain a high areal density of gas‐sieving nanoscale pores, they can exhibit both high gas permeances and high selectivities, which is beneficial for reducing the cost of gas‐separation processes. Here, recent modeling and experimental advances in nanoporous atomically thin membranes for gas separations is discussed. The major challenges involved, including controlling pore size distributions, scaling up the membrane area, and matching theory with experimental results, are also highlighted. Finally, important future directions are proposed for real gas‐separation applications of nanoporous atomically thin membranes.

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  5. Abstract

    Single‐layer graphene containing molecular‐sized in‐plane pores is regarded as a promising membrane material for high‐performance gas separations due to its atomic thickness and low gas transport resistance. However, typical etching‐based pore generation methods cannot decouple pore nucleation and pore growth, resulting in a trade‐off between high areal pore density and high selectivity. In contrast, intrinsic pores in graphene formed during chemical vapor deposition are not created by etching. Therefore, intrinsically porous graphene can exhibit high pore density while maintaining its gas selectivity. In this work, the density of intrinsic graphene pores is systematically controlled for the first time, while appropriate pore sizes for gas sieving are precisely maintained. As a result, single‐layer graphene membranes with the highest H2/CH4separation performances recorded to date (H2permeance > 4000 GPU and H2/CH4selectivity > 2000) are fabricated by manipulating growth temperature, precursor concentration, and non‐covalent decoration of the graphene surface. Moreover, it is identified that nanoscale molecular fouling of the graphene surface during gas separation where graphene pores are partially blocked by hydrocarbon contaminants under experimental conditions, controls both selectivity and temperature dependent permeance. Overall, the direct synthesis of porous single‐layer graphene exploits its tremendous potential as high‐performance gas‐sieving membranes.

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  6. Abstract

    Optical density (OD) is widely used to estimate the density of cells in liquid culture, but cannot be compared between instruments without a standardized calibration protocol and is challenging to relate to actual cell count. We address this with an interlaboratory study comparing three simple, low-cost, and highly accessible OD calibration protocols across 244 laboratories, applied to eight strains of constitutive GFP-expressingE. coli. Based on our results, we recommend calibrating OD to estimated cell count using serial dilution of silica microspheres, which produces highly precise calibration (95.5% of residuals  <1.2-fold), is easily assessed for quality control, also assesses instrument effective linear range, and can be combined with fluorescence calibration to obtain units of Molecules of Equivalent Fluorescein (MEFL) per cell, allowing direct comparison and data fusion with flow cytometry measurements: in our study, fluorescence per cell measurements showed only a 1.07-fold mean difference between plate reader and flow cytometry data.

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