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  1. Pre-print available at:
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
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  3. Electromagnetic (EM) scattering may be a significant source of degradation in signal and power integrity of high-contrast silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nano-scale interconnects, such as opto-electronic or optical interconnects operating at 100 s of THz where two-dimensional (2D) analytical models of dielectric slab waveguides are often used to approximate scattering loss. In this work, a formulation is presented to relate the scattering (propagation) loss to the scattering parameters (S-parameters) for the smooth waveguide; the results are correlated with results from the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method in 2D space. We propose a normalization factor to the previous 2D analytical formulation for the stochastic scattering loss based on physical parameters of waveguides exhibiting random surface roughness under the exponential autocorrelation function (ACF), and validate the results by comparing against numerical experiments via the 2D FDTD method, through simulation of hundreds of rough waveguides; additionally, results are compared to other 2D analytical and previous 3D experimental results. The FDTD environment is described and validated by comparing results of the smooth waveguide against analytical solutions for wave impedance, propagation constant, and S-parameters. Results show that the FDTD model is in agreement with the analytical solution for the smooth waveguide and is a reasonable approximation of themore »stochastic scattering loss for the rough waveguide.« less
  4. A 1D Gaussian expression is derived and used as the 1D E/H incident field in the TF/SF formulation to efficiently generate plane waves in 1D, 2D, and 3D FDTD simulations. The analytic expression is simple, and it eliminates the need for computational resources to store and compute the E/H-field incident arrays and their associated absorbing boundaries. FDTD simulation results at the magic time-step in 1D, 2D, and 3D FDTD show good correlation between plane waves generated by the 1D analytic Gaussian function vs. those generated by 1D FDTD incident arrays.
  5. The dielectric waveguide (WG) is an important building block of high-speed and high-bandwidth optical and opto-electronic interconnect networks that operate in the THz frequency regime. At the interface of Si/SiO 2 dielectric waveguides with width above w = 2.5 μm and anisotropic surface roughness, transverse electric (TE) mode surface wave propagation can experience a loss of approximately a = 2 dB/cm; however, propagation losses increase rapidly to near a = 44 dB/cm as the width decreases to w = 500 nm, due to increased interaction of surface waves and sidewall surface roughness that exhibits random distribution inherent to the manufacturing process. Previous works have developed analytic expressions for computing propagation loss in a single dielectric waveguide exhibiting random roughness. More recent works report a = 0.4 dB/cm noting the non-trivial estimation errors in previous theoretical formulations which relied on planar approximations, and highlight the discrepancy in planar approximations vs. the 3-D Volume Current Method. A challenge that remains in the path of designing nanoscale optical interconnects is the dearth of efficient 3-D stochastic computational electromagnetic (CEM) models for multiple tightly coupled optical dielectric waveguides that characterize propagation loss due to random surface roughness in waveguide sidewalls. Through a series ofmore »theoretical and numerical experiments developed in the method of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD), we aim to develop stochastic CEM models to quantify propagation loss and facilitate signal & power integrity modeling & simulation of arbitrary configurations of multiple tightly-coupled waveguides, and to gain further insights into loss mechanisms due to random surface roughness in optical interconnects.« less
  6. We present a numerical methodology to estimate the transient fault currents and to simulate the remote sensing of transient fault information embedded in the magnetic field emissions caused by inter-turn shorts in 60 Hz air-core reactors, thru a magneto quasi-static (MQS) field approximation in the method of Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) in 2-dimensional (2D) space. The MQS 2D FDTD fields of reactor in normal operation are scaled by correlation against an equivalent circuit model that is derived from application of basic physics principles to parameters of the 3D air-core reactor. The proposed multi-scale quasi-static modeling methodology, based on the reduced c modification, provides fine-feature access down to the single-wire level and can efficiently estimate the transient fault fields and currents due to turn-to-turn short in a reactor with core height in several meters, core diameter in meters, wire diameter in millimeters, and number of turns in the thousands, at 60 Hz; this is accomplished by using computational resources of a typical laptop computer within seconds or minutes, as opposed to days that would be otherwise required without the reduced c modification.