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  1. null (Ed.)
    Concerning power systems, real-time monitoring of cyber–physical security, false data injection attacks on wide-area measurements are of major concern. However, the database of the network parameters is just as crucial to the state estimation process. Maintaining the accuracy of the system model is the other part of the equation, since almost all applications in power systems heavily depend on the state estimator outputs. While much effort has been given to measurements of false data injection attacks, seldom reported work is found on the broad theme of false data injection on the database of network parameters. State-of-the-art physics-based model solutions correct false data injection on network parameter database considering only available wide-area measurements. In addition, deterministic models are used for correction. In this paper, an overdetermined physics-based parameter false data injection correction model is presented. The overdetermined model uses a parameter database correction Jacobian matrix and a Taylor series expansion approximation. The method further applies the concept of synthetic measurements, which refers to measurements that do not exist in the real-life system. A machine learning linear regression-based model for measurement prediction is integrated in the framework through deriving weights for synthetic measurements creation. Validation of the presented model is performed on the IEEE 118-bus system. Numerical results show that the approximation error is lower than the state-of-the-art, while providing robustness to the correction process. Easy-to-implement model on the classical weighted-least-squares solution, highlights real-life implementation potential aspects. 
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  2. null (Ed.)
  3. Grilli, Jacopo (Ed.)
    Broad scale remote sensing promises to build forest inventories at unprecedented scales. A crucial step in this process is to associate sensor data into individual crowns. While dozens of crown detection algorithms have been proposed, their performance is typically not compared based on standard data or evaluation metrics. There is a need for a benchmark dataset to minimize differences in reported results as well as support evaluation of algorithms across a broad range of forest types. Combining RGB, LiDAR and hyperspectral sensor data from the USA National Ecological Observatory Network’s Airborne Observation Platform with multiple types of evaluation data, we created a benchmark dataset to assess crown detection and delineation methods for canopy trees covering dominant forest types in the United States. This benchmark dataset includes an R package to standardize evaluation metrics and simplify comparisons between methods. The benchmark dataset contains over 6,000 image-annotated crowns, 400 field-annotated crowns, and 3,000 canopy stem points from a wide range of forest types. In addition, we include over 10,000 training crowns for optional use. We discuss the different evaluation data sources and assess the accuracy of the image-annotated crowns by comparing annotations among multiple annotators as well as overlapping field-annotated crowns. We provide an example submission and score for an open-source algorithm that can serve as a baseline for future methods. 
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  4. null (Ed.)
    Forests provide biodiversity, ecosystem, and economic services. Information on individual trees is important for understanding forest ecosystems but obtaining individual-level data at broad scales is challenging due to the costs and logistics of data collection. While advances in remote sensing techniques allow surveys of individual trees at unprecedented extents, there remain technical challenges in turning sensor data into tangible information. Using deep learning methods, we produced an open-source data set of individual-level crown estimates for 100 million trees at 37 sites across the United States surveyed by the National Ecological Observatory Network’s Airborne Observation Platform. Each canopy tree crown is represented by a rectangular bounding box and includes information on the height, crown area, and spatial location of the tree. These data have the potential to drive significant expansion of individual-level research on trees by facilitating both regional analyses and cross-region comparisons encompassing forest types from most of the United States. 
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