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  2. "Monkey see monkey do" is an age-old adage, referring to naive imitation without a deep understanding of a system's underlying mechanics. Indeed, if a demonstrator has access to information unavailable to the imitator (monkey), such as a different set of sensors, then no matter how perfectly the imitator models its perceived environment (See), attempting to directly reproduce the demonstrator's behavior (Do) can lead to poor outcomes. Imitation learning in the presence of a mismatch between demonstrator and imitator has been studied in the literature under the rubric of causal imitation learning (Zhang et. al. 2020), but existing solutions are limited to single-stage decision-making. This paper investigates the problem of causal imitation learning in sequential settings, where the imitator must make multiple decisions per episode. We develop a graphical criterion that is both necessary and sufficient for determining the feasibility of causal imitation, providing conditions when an imitator can match a demonstrator's performance despite differing capabilities. Finally, we provide an efficient algorithm for determining imitability, and corroborate our theory with simulations. 
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  3. With rapid innovations in drone, camera, and 3D photogrammetry, drone-based remote sensing can accurately and efficiently provide ultra-high resolution imagery and digital surface model (DSM) at a landscape scale. Several studies have been conducted using drone-based remote sensing to quantitatively assess the impacts of wind erosion on the vegetation communities and landforms in drylands. In this study, first, five difficulties in conducting wind erosion research through data collection from fieldwork are summarized: insufficient samples, spatial displacement with auxiliary datasets, missing volumetric information, a unidirectional view, and spatially inexplicit input. Then, five possible applications—to provide a reliable and valid sample set, to mitigate the spatial offset, to monitor soil elevation change, to evaluate the directional property of land cover, and to make spatially explicit input for ecological models—of drone-based remote sensing products are suggested. To sum up, drone-based remote sensing has become a useful method to research wind erosion in drylands, and can solve the issues caused by using data collected from fieldwork. For wind erosion research in drylands, we suggest that a drone-based remote sensing product should be used as a complement to field measurements. 
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  6. Abstract

    The purpose of this study is to develop an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)‐based remote sensing method that can estimate vegetation indicators in arid and semiarid rangelands. This method was used to quantify six rangeland indicators (canopy size, bare soil gap size, plant height, scaled height, vegetation cover, and bare soil cover) in a semiarid grass–shrub ecosystem. The drone‐based estimates were validated with field measurements by using the standard transect methods (gap intercept, drop disk, and line‐point intercept methods) in the spring and summer of 2017. The drone‐based estimates showed strong agreements with in situ measurements in cases where deciduous vegetation (mesquite) had leaves withR2for bare soil gap size and vegetation height of 0.97 and 0.89 in the summer, respectively. The RMSE of bare soil gap size and vegetation height are 0.2 m and 6.72 cm in the summer, respectively. Based on these results, we found that drone‐based remote sensing proved to be an efficient and highly accurate method that serves as a complement to field measurements for rangeland indicator estimation. We discussed the possible applications of drone‐based products on arid and semiarid rangelands: the spatially explicit input of an ecological model, to detect and characterize non‐stationarity, and to detect landscape anisotropy.

     
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