skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Zhang, Wenjun"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2025
  2. The Pacific–North American (PNA) teleconnection pattern is one of the prominent atmospheric circulation modes in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere, and its seasonal to interannual predictability is suggested to originate from El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Intriguingly, the PNA teleconnection pattern exhibits variance at near-annual frequencies, which is related to a rapid phase reversal of the PNA pattern during ENSO years, whereas the ENSO sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the tropical Pacific are evolving much slower in time. This distinct seasonal feature of the PNA pattern can be explained by an amplitude modulation of the interannual ENSO signal by the annual cycle (i.e., the ENSO combination mode). The ENSO-related seasonal phase transition of the PNA pattern is reproduced well in an atmospheric general circulation model when both the background SST annual cycle and ENSO SST anomalies are prescribed. In contrast, this characteristic seasonal evolution of the PNA pattern is absent when the tropical Pacific background SST annual cycle is not considered in the modeling experiments. The background SST annual cycle in the tropical Pacific modulates the ENSO-associated tropical Pacific convection response, leading to a rapid enhancement of convection anomalies in winter. The enhanced convection results in a fast establishment of the large-scale PNA teleconnection during ENSO years. The dynamics of this ENSO–annual cycle interaction fills an important gap in our understanding of the seasonally modulated PNA teleconnection pattern during ENSO years. 
    more » « less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 15, 2024
  3. El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly skewness encapsulates the nonlinear processes of strong ENSO events and affects future climate projections. Yet, its response to CO2 forcing remains not well understood. Here, we find ENSO skewness hysteresis in a large ensemble CO2 removal simulation. The positive SST skewness in the central-to-eastern tropical Pacific gradually weakens (most pronounced near the dateline) in response to increasing CO2, but weakens even further once CO2 is ramped down. Further analyses reveal that hysteresis of the Intertropical Convergence Zone migration leads to more active and farther eastward-located strong eastern Pacific El Niño events, thus decreasing central Pacific ENSO skewness by reducing the amplitude of the central Pacific positive SST anomalies and increasing the scaling effect of the eastern Pacific skewness denominator, i.e., ENSO intensity, respectively. The reduction of eastern Pacific El Niño maximum intensity, which is constrained by the SST zonal gradient of the projected background El Niño-like warming pattern, also contributes to a reduction of eastern Pacific SST skewness around the CO2 peak phase. This study highlights the divergent responses of different strong El Niño regimes in response to climate change. 
    more » « less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 16, 2024
  5. El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the strongest interannual climate variability with far-reaching socioeconomic consequences. Many studies have investigated ENSO-projected changes under future greenhouse warming, but its responses to plausible mitigation behaviors remain unknown. We show that ENSO sea surface temperature (SST) variability and associated global teleconnection patterns exhibit strong hysteretic responses to carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction based on the 28-member ensemble simulations of the CESM1.2 model under an idealized CO2 ramp-up and ramp-down scenario. There is a substantial increase in the ensemble-averaged eastern Pacific SST anomaly variance during the ramp-down period compared to the ramp-up period. Such ENSO hysteresis is mainly attributed to the hysteretic response of the tropical Pacific Intertropical Convergence Zone meridional position to CO2 removal and is further supported by several selected single-member Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) model simulations. The presence of ENSO hysteresis leads to its amplified and prolonged impact in a warming climate, depending on the details of future mitigation pathways. 
    more » « less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 4, 2024
  6. As the dominant form of mesoscale variability in the equatorial eastern Pacific, Tropical Instability Waves (TIWs) are known to interact with the El Niño and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in complex ways. TIWs activity is modulated by the ENSO state and also provide significant feedback on ENSO via nonlinear dynamic heating (NDH), acting as a source of asymmetry between the El Niño and La Niña phases. In this work, we show that the interannual variability of TIWs-induced heat flux and NDH can be approximately expressed in terms of the mean meridional temperature gradient as TIWs tend to transport heat downgradient of the temperature anomalies along the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) front. The TIWs-induced NDH can be quantified as an asymmetric negative feedback on ENSO by a nonlinear thermal eddy diffusivity which depends on the background TIWs pattern and the ENSO-related linear and nonlinear processes. This proposed parameterization scheme can capture well the direct ENSO modulation on TIWs activity, the combination effect arising from the nonlinear interaction between ENSO and the cold tongue annual cycle, and associated ENSO nonlinearity. This parameterization scheme is effectively tested using four ocean reanalysis datasets with different horizontal resolutions that exhibit contrasted patterns of TIWs activity. This scheme may be useful for assessing the TIWs-induced feedback on ENSO in mechanistic ENSO models to better understand the dynamics of ENSO complexity. 
    more » « less
  7. Abstract

    Siderophores belonging to the ferrichrome family are essential for the viability of fungal species and play a key role for virulence of numerous pathogenic fungi. Despite their biological significance, our understanding of how these iron-chelating cyclic hexapeptides are assembled by non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) enzymes remains poorly understood, primarily due to the nonlinearity exhibited by the domain architecture. Herein, we report the biochemical characterization of the SidC NRPS, responsible for construction of the intracellular siderophore ferricrocin. In vitro reconstitution of purified SidC reveals its ability to produce ferricrocin and its structural variant, ferrichrome. Application of intact protein mass spectrometry uncovers several non-canonical events during peptidyl siderophore biosynthesis, including inter-modular loading of amino acid substrates and an adenylation domain capable of poly-amide bond formation. This work expands the scope of NRPS programming, allows biosynthetic assignment of ferrichrome NRPSs, and sets the stage for reprogramming towards novel hydroxamate scaffolds.

    more » « less
  8. Abstract Current climate models have relatively high skills in predicting El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phase (i.e., El Niño, neutral, and La Niña), once leaping over the spring predictability barrier. However, it is still a big challenge to realistically forecast the ENSO amplitude, for instance, whether a predicted event will be strong, moderate, or weak. Here we demonstrate that the accumulated westerly wind events (WWEs)/easterly wind surges (EWSs) and oceanic recharged/discharged states are both of importance in accurate ENSO amplitude forecasts. El Niño and La Niña events exhibit asymmetric temporal and spatial features in the atmospheric and oceanic preconditions. El Niño amplitude at the peak season is closely associated with the accumulated WWEs over the eastern equatorial Pacific from the previous December to May and the recharged state in the western equatorial Pacific during February. In contrast, the amplitude of La Niña events is sensitive to the accumulated EWSs over the equatorial western Pacific from the previous November to April and the discharged state extending from the equatorial western to central Pacific during February. Considering these asymmetric atmospheric and oceanic preconditions of El Niño and La Niña cases, a statistical model is established to accurately forecast the ENSO amplitude at its mature phase during 1982–2018, which is validated to be robust based on a 1-yr cross-validation and independent sample tests. The feasibility and the limitation of the established statistical model are also discussed by examining its practical utility. 
    more » « less