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  1. Water-based coherent detection of broadband terahertz (THz) wave has been recently proposed with superior performances, which can alleviate the limited detection bandwidth and high probe laser energy requirement in the solid- and air-based detection schemes, respectively. Here, we demonstrate that the water-based detection method can be extended to the aqueous salt solutions and the sensitivity can be significantly enhanced. The THz coherent detection signal intensity scales linearly with the third-order nonlinear susceptibilityχ(3)or quadratically with the linear refractive indexη0of the aqueous salt solutions, while the incoherent detection signal intensity scales quadratically withχ(3)or quartically withη0, proving the underlying mechanism is the four-wave mixing. Both the coherent and incoherent detection signal intensities appear positive correlation with the solution concentration. These results imply that the liquid-based THz detection scheme could provide a new technique to measureχ(3)and further investigate the physicochemical properties in the THz band for various liquids.

  2. We characterize a terahertz (THz) source based on plasma in liquid gallium. The dependence of the emitted THz pulse energy on second-order phase, pump pulse energy, and polarization of the short laser pulse is demonstrated. Our study suggests that the THz emission mechanism is due to the ponderomotive force and is aided by a direct-field driven term. The proposed source and accompanying generation mechanism are studied under a non-relativistic regime (1015<<#comment/>I<<#comment/>1018W/cm2) for forward directed THz under a single pump excitation scheme.

  3. Abstract

    Terahertz (THz) radiation encompasses a wide spectral range within the electromagnetic spectrum that extends from microwaves to the far infrared (100 GHz–∼30 THz). Within its frequency boundaries exist a broad variety of scientific disciplines that have presented, and continue to present, technical challenges to researchers. During the past 50 years, for instance, the demands of the scientific community have substantially evolved and with a need for advanced instrumentation to support radio astronomy, Earth observation, weather forecasting, security imaging, telecommunications, non-destructive device testing and much more. Furthermore, applications have required an emergence of technology from the laboratory environment to production-scale supply and in-the-field deployments ranging from harsh ground-based locations to deep space. In addressing these requirements, the research and development community has advanced related technology and bridged the transition between electronics and photonics that high frequency operation demands. The multidisciplinary nature of THz work was our stimulus for creating the 2017 THz Science and Technology Roadmap (Dhillonet al2017J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.50043001). As one might envisage, though, there remains much to explore both scientifically and technically and the field has continued to develop and expand rapidly. It is timely, therefore, to revise our previous roadmap and in this 2023 versionmore »we both provide an update on key developments in established technical areas that have important scientific and public benefit, and highlight new and emerging areas that show particular promise. The developments that we describe thus span from fundamental scientific research, such as THz astronomy and the emergent area of THz quantum optics, to highly applied and commercially and societally impactful subjects that include 6G THz communications, medical imaging, and climate monitoring and prediction. Our Roadmap vision draws upon the expertise and perspective of multiple international specialists that together provide an overview of past developments and the likely challenges facing the field of THz science and technology in future decades. The document is written in a form that is accessible to policy makers who wish to gain an overview of the current state of the THz art, and for the non-specialist and curious who wish to understand available technology and challenges. A such, our experts deliver a ‘snapshot’ introduction to the current status of the field and provide suggestions for exciting future technical development directions. Ultimately, we intend the Roadmap to portray the advantages and benefits of the THz domain and to stimulate further exploration of the field in support of scientific research and commercial realisation.

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  4. Developing efficient and robust terahertz (THz) sources is of incessant interest in the THz community for their wide applications. With successive effort in past decades, numerous groups have achieved THz wave generation from solids, gases, and plasmas. However, liquid, especially liquid water has never been demonstrated as a THz source. One main reason leading the impediment is that water has strong absorption characteristics in the THz frequency regime. A thin water film under intense laser excitation was introduced as the THz source to mitigate the considerable loss of THz waves from the absorption. Laser-induced plasma formation associated with a ponderomotive force- induced dipole model was proposed to explain the generation process. For the one-color excitation scheme, the water film generates a higher THz electric field than the air does under the identical experimental condition. Unlike the case of air, THz wave generation from liquid water prefers a sub-picosecond (200 – 800 fs) laser pulse rather than a femtosecond pulse (~50 fs). This observation results from the plasma generation process in water. For the two-color excitation scheme, the THz electric field is enhanced by one-order of magnitude in comparison with the one-color case. Meanwhile, coherent control of the THz field ismore »achieved by adjusting the relative phase between the fundamental pulse and the second-harmonic pulse. To eliminate the total internal reflection of THz waves at the water-air interface of a water film, a water line produced by a syringe needle was used to emit THz waves. As expected, more THz radiation can be coupled out and detected. THz wave generation from other liquids were also tested.« less