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  1. We present a single-shot detection method of terahertz correlated second harmonic generation in plasma-based sources by directly mixing an optical probe into femtosecond laser-induced plasma filaments in air. The single-shot second harmonic trace is obtained by measuring a second harmonic generation on a conventional CCD with a spatiotemporally distorted probe beam. The system shows a spectrometer resolution of 22 fs/pixel on the CCD and a true resolution on the order of the probe pulse duration. With considerable THz peak electric field strength, this formalism can open the door to single-shot THz detection without bandwidth limitations.

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  2. Water-based coherent detection of broadband terahertz (THz) wave has been recently proposed with superior performances, which can alleviate the limited detection bandwidth and high probe laser energy requirement in the solid- and air-based detection schemes, respectively. Here, we demonstrate that the water-based detection method can be extended to the aqueous salt solutions and the sensitivity can be significantly enhanced. The THz coherent detection signal intensity scales linearly with the third-order nonlinear susceptibilityχ(3)or quadratically with the linear refractive indexη0of the aqueous salt solutions, while the incoherent detection signal intensity scales quadratically withχ(3)or quartically withη0, proving the underlying mechanism is the four-wave mixing. Both the coherent and incoherent detection signal intensities appear positive correlation with the solution concentration. These results imply that the liquid-based THz detection scheme could provide a new technique to measureχ(3)and further investigate the physicochemical properties in the THz band for various liquids.

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  3. We characterize a terahertz (THz) source based on plasma in liquid gallium. The dependence of the emitted THz pulse energy on second-order phase, pump pulse energy, and polarization of the short laser pulse is demonstrated. Our study suggests that the THz emission mechanism is due to the ponderomotive force and is aided by a direct-field driven term. The proposed source and accompanying generation mechanism are studied under a non-relativistic regime (1015<<#comment/>I<<#comment/>1018W/cm2) for forward directed THz under a single pump excitation scheme.

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  4. null (Ed.)
    Developing efficient and robust terahertz (THz) sources is of incessant interest in the THz community for their wide applications. With successive effort in past decades, numerous groups have achieved THz wave generation from solids, gases, and plasmas. However, liquid, especially liquid water has never been demonstrated as a THz source. One main reason leading the impediment is that water has strong absorption characteristics in the THz frequency regime. A thin water film under intense laser excitation was introduced as the THz source to mitigate the considerable loss of THz waves from the absorption. Laser-induced plasma formation associated with a ponderomotive force- induced dipole model was proposed to explain the generation process. For the one-color excitation scheme, the water film generates a higher THz electric field than the air does under the identical experimental condition. Unlike the case of air, THz wave generation from liquid water prefers a sub-picosecond (200 – 800 fs) laser pulse rather than a femtosecond pulse (~50 fs). This observation results from the plasma generation process in water. For the two-color excitation scheme, the THz electric field is enhanced by one-order of magnitude in comparison with the one-color case. Meanwhile, coherent control of the THz field is achieved by adjusting the relative phase between the fundamental pulse and the second-harmonic pulse. To eliminate the total internal reflection of THz waves at the water-air interface of a water film, a water line produced by a syringe needle was used to emit THz waves. As expected, more THz radiation can be coupled out and detected. THz wave generation from other liquids were also tested. 
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