skip to main content

Title: Forward terahertz wave generation from liquid gallium in the non-relativistic regime

We characterize a terahertz (THz) source based on plasma in liquid gallium. The dependence of the emitted THz pulse energy on second-order phase, pump pulse energy, and polarization of the short laser pulse is demonstrated. Our study suggests that the THz emission mechanism is due to the ponderomotive force and is aided by a direct-field driven term. The proposed source and accompanying generation mechanism are studied under a non-relativistic regime (1015<<#comment/>I<<#comment/>1018W/cm2) for forward directed THz under a single pump excitation scheme.

; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Journal of the Optical Society of America B
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
Article No. 3639
0740-3224; JOBPDE
Optical Society of America
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. The counterpropagating all-normal dispersion (CANDi) fiber laser is an emerging high-energy single-cavity dual-comb laser source. Its relative timing jitter (RTJ), a critical parameter for dual-comb timing precision and spectral resolution, has not been comprehensively investigated. In this paper, we enhance the state-of-the-art CANDi fiber laser pulse energy from 1 nJ to 8 nJ. We then introduce a reference-free RTJ characterization technique that provides shot-to-shot measurement capability at femtosecond precision. The measurement noise floor reaches1.6×<#comment/>10−<#comment/>7fs2/Hz, and the corresponding integrated measurement precision is only 1.8 fs (1 kHz, 20 MHz). With this characterization tool, we are able to study the physical origin of the CANDi laser’s RTJ in detail. We first verify that the cavity length fluctuation does not contribute to the RTJ. Then we measure the integrated RTJ to be 39 fs (1 kHz, 20 MHz) and identify the pump relative intensity noise (RIN) to be the dominant factor responsible for it. In particular, pump RIN is coupled to the RTJ through the Gordon–Haus effect. Finally, solutions to reduce the free-running CANDi laser’s RTJ are discussed. This work provides a general guideline to improve the performance of compact single-cavity dual-comb systems such as the CANDimore »laser, benefitting various dual-comb applications.

    « less
  2. Here, we reportχ<#comment/>(3)-based optical parametric oscillation (OPO) with widely separated signal–idler frequencies from crystalline aluminum nitride microrings pumped at2µ<#comment/>m. By tailoring the width of the microring, OPO reaching toward the telecom and mid-infrared bands with a frequency separation of 64.2 THz is achieved. While dispersion engineering through changing the microring width is capable of shifting the OPO sideband by><#comment/>9THz, the OPO frequency can also be agilely tuned in the ranges of 1 and 0.1 THz, respectively, by shifting the pump wavelength and controlling the chip’s temperature. At high pump powers, the OPO sidebands further evolve into localized frequency comb lines. Such large-frequency-shift OPO with flexible wavelength tunability will lead to enhanced chip-scale light sources.

  3. This paper presents a 3D model of a terahertz photoconductive antenna (PCA) using black phosphorus, an emerging 2D anisotropic material, as the semiconductor layer. This work aims at understanding the potential of black phosphorus (BP) to advance the signal generation and bandwidth of conventional terahertz (THz) PCAs. The COMSOL Multiphysics package, based on the finite element method, is utilized to model the 3D BP PCA emitter using four modules: the frequency domain RF module to solve Maxwell’s equations, the semiconductor module to calculate the photocurrent, the heat transfer in solids module to calculate the temperature variations, and the transient RF module to calculate the THz radiated electric field pulse. The proposed 3D model is computationally intensive where the PCA device includes thin layers of thicknesses ranging from nano- to microscale. The symmetry of the configuration was exploited by applying the perfect electric and magnetic boundary conditions to reduce the computational domain to only one quarter of the device in the RF module. The results showed that the temperature variation due to the conduction of current induced by the bias voltage increased by only 0.162 K. In addition, the electromagnetic power dissipation in the semiconductor due to the femtosecond laser source showedmore »an increase in temperature by 0.441 K. The results show that the temperature variations caused the peak of the photocurrent to increase by∼<#comment/>3.4%<#comment/>and∼<#comment/>10%<#comment/>, respectively, under a maximum bias voltage of 1 V and average laser power of 1 mW. While simulating the active area of the antenna provided accurate results for the optical and semiconductor responses, simulating the thermal effect on the photocurrent requires a larger computational domain to avoid false rise in temperature. Finally, the simulated THz signal generation electric field pulse exhibits a trend in increasing the bandwidth of the proposed BP PCA compared with the measured pulse of a reference commercial LT-GaAs PCA. Enhancing signal generation and bandwidth will improve THz imaging and spectroscopy for biomedical and material characterization applications.

    « less
  4. High-gain optical parametric amplification is an important nonlinear process used both as a source of coherent infrared light and as a source of nonclassical light. In this work, we experimentally demonstrate an approach to optical parametric amplification that enables extremely large parametric gains with low energy requirements. In conventional nonlinear media driven by femtosecond pulses, multiple dispersion orders limit the effective interaction length available for parametric amplification. Here, we use the dispersion engineering available in periodically poled thin-film lithium niobate nanowaveguides to eliminate several dispersion orders at once. The result is a quasi-static process; the large peak intensity associated with a short pump pulse can provide gain to signal photons without undergoing pulse distortion or temporal walk-off. We characterize the parametric gain available in these waveguides using optical parametric generation, where vacuum fluctuations are amplified to macroscopic intensities. In the unsaturated regime, we observe parametric gains as large as 71 dB (118 dB/cm) spanning 1700–2700 nm with pump energies of only 4 pJ. When driven with pulse energies><#comment/>10pJ, we observe saturated parametric gains as large as 88 dB (><#comment/>146dB/cm). The devices shown heremore »achieve saturated optical parametric generation with orders of magnitude less pulse energy than previous techniques.

    « less
  5. For easy manipulation of polarization states of light for applications in communications, imaging, and information processing, an efficient mechanism is desired for rotating light polarization with a minimum interaction length. Here, we report giant polarization rotations for terahertz (THz) electromagnetic waves in ultrathin (∼<#comment/>45nm), high-density films of aligned carbon nanotubes. We observed polarization rotations of up to∼<#comment/>20∘<#comment/>and∼<#comment/>110∘<#comment/>for transmitted and reflected THz pulses, respectively. The amount of polarization rotation was a sensitive function of the angle between the incident THz polarization and the nanotube alignment direction, exhibiting a “magic” angle at which the total rotation through transmission and reflection becomes exactly 90°. Our model quantitatively explains these giant rotations as a result of extremely anisotropic optical constants, demonstrating that aligned carbon nanotubes promise ultrathin, broadband, and tunable THz polarization devices.