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  1. Abstract We present evidence that the two-dimensional bulk of monolayer WTe 2 contains electrons and holes bound by Coulomb attraction—excitons—that spontaneously form in thermal equilibrium. On cooling from room temperature to 100 K, the conductivity develops a V-shaped dependence on electrostatic doping, while the chemical potential develops a step at the neutral point. These features are much sharper than is possible in an independent-electron picture, but they can be accounted for if electrons and holes interact strongly and are paired in equilibrium. Our calculations from first principles show that the exciton binding energy is larger than 100 meV and the radius as small as 4 nm, explaining their formation at high temperature and doping levels. Below 100 K, more strongly insulating behaviour is seen, suggesting that a charge-ordered state forms. The observed absence of charge density waves in this state is surprising within an excitonic insulator picture, but we show that it can be explained by the symmetries of the exciton wavefunction. Therefore, in addition to being a topological insulator, monolayer WTe 2 exhibits strong correlations over a wide temperature range.
  2. The deep structure of the continental collision between India and Asia and whether India’s lower crust is underplated beneath Tibet or subducted into the mantle remain controversial. It is also unknown whether the active normal faults that facilitate orogen-parallel extension of Tibetan upper crust continue into the lower crust and upper mantle. Our receiver-function images collected parallel to the India–Tibet collision zone show the 20-km-thick Indian lower crust that underplates Tibet at 88.5–92°E beneath the Yarlung-Zangbo suture is essentially absent in the vicinity of the Cona-Sangri and Pumqu-Xainza grabens, demonstrating a clear link between upper-crustal and lower-crustal thinning. Satellite gravity data that covary with the thickness of Indian lower crust are consistent with the lower crust being only ∼30% eclogitized so gravitationally stable. Deep earthquakes coincide with Moho offsets and with lateral thinning of the Indian lower crust near the bottom of the partially eclogitized Indian lower crust, suggesting the Indian lower crust is locally foundering or stoping into the mantle. Loss of Indian lower crust by these means implies gravitational instability that can result from localized rapid eclogitization enabled by dehydration reactions in weakly hydrous mafic granulites or by volatile-rich asthenospheric upwelling directly beneath the two grabens. We proposemore »that two competing processes, plateau formation by underplating and continental loss by foundering or stoping, are simultaneously operating beneath the collision zone.

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  3. The layered semimetal tungsten ditelluride (WTe 2 ) has recently been found to be a two-dimensional topological insulator (2D TI) when thinned down to a single monolayer, with conducting helical edge channels. We found that intrinsic superconductivity can be induced in this monolayer 2D TI by mild electrostatic doping at temperatures below 1 kelvin. The 2D TI–superconductor transition can be driven by applying a small gate voltage. This discovery offers possibilities for gate-controlled devices combining superconductivity and nontrivial topological properties, and could provide a basis for quantum information schemes based on topological protection.