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  1. Developing efficient and stable organic photovoltaics (OPVs) is crucial for the technology's commercial success. However, combining these key attributes remains challenging. Herein, we incorporate the small molecule 2-((3,6-dibromo-9 H -carbazol-9-yl)ethyl)phosphonic acid (Br-2PACz) between the bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) and a 7 nm-thin layer of MoO 3 in inverted OPVs, and study its effects on the cell performance. We find that the Br-2PACz/MoO 3 hole-extraction layer (HEL) boosts the cell's power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 17.36% to 18.73% (uncertified), making them the most efficient inverted OPVs to date. The factors responsible for this improvement include enhanced charge transport, reduced carrier recombination, and favourable vertical phase separation of donor and acceptor components in the BHJ. The Br-2PACz/MoO 3 -based OPVs exhibit higher operational stability under continuous illumination and thermal annealing (80 °C). The T 80 lifetime of OPVs featuring Br-2PACz/MoO 3 – taken as the time over which the cell's PCE reduces to 80% of its initial value – increases compared to MoO 3 -only cells from 297 to 615 h upon illumination and from 731 to 1064 h upon continuous heating. Elemental analysis of the BHJs reveals the enhanced stability to originate from the partially suppressed diffusion of Mo ions into the BHJ and the favourable distribution of the donor and acceptor components induced by the Br-2PACz. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 3, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  3. null (Ed.)
    This work proposes a rigorous and practical algorithm for quad-mesh generation based the Abel-Jacobi theory of algebraic \textcolor{red}{curves}. We prove sufficient and necessary conditions for a flat metric with cone singularities to be compatible with a quad-mesh, in terms of the deck-transformation, then develop an algorithm based on the theorem. The algorithm has two stages: first, a meromorphic quartic differential is generated to induce a T-mesh; second, the edge lengths of the T-mesh are adjusted by solving a linear system to satisfy the deck transformation condition, which produces a quad-mesh. In the first stage, the algorithm pipeline can be summarized as follows: calculate the homology group; compute the holomorphic differential group; construct the period matrix of the surface and Jacobi variety; calculate the Abel-Jacobi map for a given divisor; optimize the divisor to satisfy the Abel-Jacobi condition by integer programming; compute \textcolor{red}{a} flat Riemannian metric with cone singularities at the divisor by Ricci flow; \textcolor{red}{isometrically} immerse the surface punctured at the divisor onto the complex plane and pull back the canonical holomorphic differential to the surface to obtain the meromorphic quartic differential; construct a motorcycle graph to generate a T-Mesh. In the second stage, the deck transformation constraints are formulated as a linear equation system of the edge lengths of the T-mesh. The solution provides a flat metric with integral deck transformations, which leads to the final quad-mesh. The proposed method is rigorous and practical. The T-mesh and quad-mesh results can be applied for constructing Splines directly. The efficiency and efficacy of the proposed algorithm are demonstrated by experimental results on surfaces with complicated topologies and geometries. 
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  4. null (Ed.)
    This work discovers the equivalence relation between quadrilateral meshes and meromorphic quartic differentials. Each quad-mesh induces a conformal structure of the surface, and a meromorphic quartic differential, where the configuration of singular vertices corresponds to the configurations of the poles and zeros (divisor) of the meromorphic differential. Due to Riemann surface theory, the configuration of singularities of a quad-mesh satisfies the Abel–Jacobi condition. Inversely, if a divisor satisfies the Abel–Jacobi condition, then there exists a meromorphic quartic differential whose divisor equals the given one. Furthermore, if the meromorphic quartic differential is with finite trajectories, then it also induces a quad-mesh, the poles and zeros of the meromorphic differential correspond to the singular vertices of the quad-mesh. Besides the theoretic proofs, the computational algorithm for verification of Abel–Jacobi condition is also explained in detail. Furthermore, constructive algorithm of meromorphic quartic differential on genus zero surfaces is proposed, which is based on the global algebraic representation of meromorphic differentials. Our experimental results demonstrate the efficiency and efficacy of the algorithm. This opens up a novel direction for quad-mesh generation using algebraic geometric approach. 
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  5. This paper presents a framework for computational generation and conformal fabrication of woven thin-shell structures with arbitrary topology based on the foliation theory which decomposes a surface into a group of parallel leaves. By solving graph-valued harmonic maps on the input surface, we construct two sets of harmonic foliations perpendicular to each other. The warp and weft threads are created afterward and then manually woven to reconstruct the surface. The proposed computational method guarantees the smoothness of the foliation and the orthogonality between each pair of leaves from different foliations. Moreover, it minimizes the number of singularities to theoretical lower bound and produces the tensor product structure as globally as possible. This method is ideal for the physical realization of woven surface structures on a variety of applications, including wearable electronics, sheet metal craft, architectural designs, and conformal woven composite parts in the automotive and aircraft industries. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated through the computational generation and physical fabrication of several free-form thin-shell structures. 
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