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  1. Abstract This work focuses on the nature of magnetic anisotropy in 2.5–16 micron thick films of nickel ferrite (NFO) grown by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE). The technique, ideal for rapid growth of epitaxial oxide films, was utilized for films on (100) and (110) substrates of magnesium gallate (MGO). The motivation was to investigate the dependence of the growth induced anisotropy field on film thickness since submicron films of NFO were reported to show a very high anisotropy. The films grown at 850–875 C and subsequently annealed at 1000 C were found to be epitaxial, with the out-of-plane lattice constant showing unanticipated decrease with increasing film thickness and the estimated in-plane lattice constant increasing with the film thickness. The uniaxial anisotropy field H σ , estimated from X-ray diffraction data, ranged from 2.8–7.7 kOe with the films on (100) MGO having a higher H σ value than for the films on (110) MGO. Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements for in-plane and out-of-plane static magnetic field were utilized to determine both the magnetocrystalline the anisotropy field H 4 and the uniaxial anisotropy field H a . Values of H 4 range from −0.24 to −0.86 kOe. The uniaxial anisotropy field H a wasmore »an order of magnitude smaller than H σ and it decreased with increasing film thickness for NFO films on (100) MGO, but H a increased with film thickness for films on (110) MGO substrates. These observations indicate that the origin of the induced anisotropy could be attributed to several factors including (i) strain due to mismatch in the film-substrate lattice constants, (ii) possible variations in the bond lengths and bond angles in NFO during the growth process, and (iii) the strain arising from mismatch in the thermal expansion coefficients of the film and the substrate due to the high growth and annealing temperatures involved in the LPE technique. The LPE films of NFO on MGO substrates studied in this work are of interest for use in high frequency devices.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  3. Abstract

    In unconventional reservoirs, optimal completion controls are essential to improving well productivity and reducing costs. In this article, we propose a statistical model to investigate associations between shale oil production and completion parameters (e.g., completion lateral length, total proppant, number of hydraulic fracturing stages), while accounting for the influence of spatially heterogeneous geological conditions on hydrocarbon production. We develop a non-parametric regression method that combines a generalized additive model with a fused LASSO regularization for geological homogeneity pursuit. We present an alternating augmented Lagrangian method for model parameter estimations. The novelty and advantages of our method over the published ones are a) it can control or remove the heterogeneous non-completion effects; 2) it can account for and analyze the interactions among the completion parameters. We apply our method to the analysis of a real case from a Permian Basin US onshore field and show how our model can account for the interaction between the completion parameters. Our results provide key findings on how completion parameters affect oil production in that can lead to optimal well completion designs.

  4. Magnetic skyrmions are nanoscale whirls of magnetism that can be propagated with electrical currents. The repulsion between skyrmions inspires their use for reversible computing based on the elastic billiard ball collisions proposed for conservative logic in 1982. Here we evaluate the logical and physical reversibility of this skyrmion logic paradigm, as well as the limitations that must be addressed before dissipation-free computation can be realized.
  5. A model for the low-frequency magnetoelectric (ME) effect that takes into consideration the bending deformation in a ferromagnetic and ferroelectric bilayer is presented. Past models, in general, ignored the influence of bending deformation. Based on the solution of the equations of the elastic theory and electrostatics, expressions for the ME voltage coefficients (MEVCs) and ME sensitivity coefficients (MESCs) in terms of the physical parameters of the materials and the geometric characteristic of the structure were obtained. Contributions from both bending and planar deformations were considered. The theory was applied to composites of PZT and Ni with negative magnetostriction, and Permendur, or Metglas, both with positive magnetostriction. Estimates of MEVCs and MESCs indicate that the contribution from bending deformation is significant but smaller than the contribution from planar deformations, leading to a reduction in the net ME coefficients in all the three bilayer systems.
  6. Nanofibers of Y- or W-type hexagonal ferrites and core–shell fibers of hexagonal ferrites and ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) or barium titanate (BTO) were synthesized by electrospinning. The fibers were found to be free of impurity phases, and the core–shell structure was confirmed by electron and scanning probe microscopy. The values of magnetization of pure hexagonal ferrite fibers compared well with bulk ferrite values. The coaxial fibers showed good ferroelectric polarization, with a maximum value of 0.85 μC/cm2 and 2.44 μC/cm2 for fibers with BTO core–Co2W shell and PZT core–Ni2Y shell structures, respectively. The magnetization, however, was much smaller than that for bulk hexaferrites. Magneto-electric (ME) coupling strength was characterized by measuring the ME voltage coefficient (MEVC) for magnetic field-assembled films of coaxial fibers. Among the fibers with Y-type, films with Zn2Y showed a higher MEVC than films with Ni2Y, and fibers with Co2W had a higher MEVC than that of those with Zn2W. The highest MEVC of 20.3 mV/cm Oe was measured for Co2W–PZT fibers. A very large ME response was measured in all of the films, even in the absence of an external magnetic bias field. The fibers studied here have the potential for use in magnetic sensorsmore »and high-frequency device applications.« less
  7. Prevention of integrated circuit counterfeiting through logic locking faces the fundamental challenge of securing an obfuscation key against both physical and algorithmic threats. Previous work has focused on strengthening the logic encryption to protect the key against algorithmic attacks, but failed to provide adequate physical security. In this work, we propose a logic locking scheme that leverages the non-volatility of the nanomagnet logic (NML) family to achieve both physical and algorithmic security. Polymorphic NML minority gates protect the obfuscation key against algorithmic attacks, while a strain-inducing shield surrounding the nanomagnets provides physical security via a self-destruction mechanism.
  8. Abstract Changes in gene expression are important for responses to abiotic stress. Transcriptome profiling of heat- or cold-stressed maize genotypes identifies many changes in transcript abundance. We used comparisons of expression responses in multiple genotypes to identify alleles with variable responses to heat or cold stress and to distinguish examples of cis- or trans-regulatory variation for stress-responsive expression changes. We used motifs enriched near the transcription start sites (TSSs) for thermal stress-responsive genes to develop predictive models of gene expression responses. Prediction accuracies can be improved by focusing only on motifs within unmethylated regions near the TSS and vary for genes with different dynamic responses to stress. Models trained on expression responses in a single genotype and promoter sequences provided lower performance when applied to other genotypes but this could be improved by using models trained on data from all three genotypes tested. The analysis of genes with cis-regulatory variation provides evidence for structural variants that result in presence/absence of transcription factor binding sites in creating variable responses. This study provides insights into cis-regulatory motifs for heat- and cold-responsive gene expression and defines a framework for developing models to predict expression responses across multiple genotypes.