skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Ziotopoulou, Katerina"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Buried water reservoirs are increasingly being built to replace open aboveground municipal water supply reservoirs in urban areas to enhance water quality and utilize their surface footprint for other purposes such as public parks or placement of solar arrays. Many of these lifeline structures are in seismically active regions and, as such, need to be designed to remain operational after severe earthquake shaking. However, evaluating their seismic response is challenging and involves accounting for the interaction of the structure with the stored fluid and the retained soil; in other words, accounting for fluid–structure–soil interaction (FSSI). This paper presents a combined experimental–numerical study on the seismic behavior of buried water reservoirs while considering FSSI. Two series of centrifuge model tests were performed at different reservoir orientations to investigate one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) motion effects under full, half-full, and empty reservoir conditions. Corresponding numerical models were developed whereby the structure and the soil were represented by continuum Lagrangian finite elements, while the fluid was modeled via Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation. Soil–structure and fluid–structure interface parameters were calibrated using the experimental measurements. The simulations successfully captured the measured reservoir responses in terms of accelerations, bending moment increments, and water pressures. The study found that the common assumption of plane strain is not applicable for reservoirs because their behavior was found to be truly three-dimensional (3D) whereby stresses accumulated at the corners. Furthermore, the full reservoir resulted in the highest seismic demands in the reservoir walls and roof while the empty reservoir yielded the highest base slippage. The study demonstrates that the complex reservoir seismic response is best captured by carrying out a 3D FSSI numerical simulation. 
    more » « less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2025
  2. Rathje, E. ; Montoya, B. ; Wayne, M. (Ed.)
    The rise of data capture and storage capabilities have led to greater data granularity and sharing of data sets in geotechnical earthquake engineering. This broader shift to big data requires ways to process and extract value from it and is aided by the progress in methodologies from the computer science domain and advancements in computer hardware capabilities. General machine learning (ML) models typically receive a set of input parameters and run them through an algorithm to gain outputs with no constraints on the parameters or algorithm process. Three topic areas of ML applications in geotechnical earthquake engineering are reviewed and summarized in this paper: seismic response, liquefaction triggering analysis, and performance-based assessments (lateral displacements and settlement analysis). The current progress of ML is summarized, while the challenges and potential in adopting such approaches are addressed. 
    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    Seismic design of water retaining structures relies heavily on the response of the retained water to shaking. The water dynamic response has been evaluated by means of analytical, numerical, and experimental approaches. In practice, it is common to use simplified code‐based methods to evaluate the added demands imposed by water sloshing. Yet, such methods were developed with an inherent set of assumptions that might limit their application. Alternatively, numerical modeling methods offer a more accurate way of quantifying the water response and have been commonly validated using 1 g shake table experiments. In this study, a unique series of five centrifuge tests was conducted with the goal of investigating the hydrodynamic behavior of water by varying its height and length. Moreover, sine wave and earthquake motions were applied to examine the water response at different types and levels of excitation. Arbitrary Lagrangian‐Eulerian finite element models were then developed to reproduce 1 g shake table experiments available in the literature in addition to the centrifuge tests conducted in this study. The results of the numerical simulations as well as the simplified and analytical methods were compared to the experimental measurements, in terms of free surface elevation and hydrodynamic pressures, to evaluate their applicability and limitations. The comparison showed that the numerical models were able to reasonably capture the water response of all configurations both under earthquake and sine wave motions. The analytical solutions performed well except for cases with resonance under harmonic motions. As for the simplified methods, they provided acceptable results for the peak responses under earthquake motions. However, under sine wave motions, where convective sloshing is significant, they underpredict the response. Also, beyond peak ground accelerations of 0.5 g., a mild nonlinear increase in peak dynamic pressures was measured which deviates from assumed linear response in the simplified methods. The study confirmed the reliability of numerical models in capturing water dynamic responses, demonstrating their broad applicability for use in complex problems of fluid‐structure‐soil interaction.

    more » « less
  4. This paper investigates and presents the numerical modeling and validation of the response of a uniform clean sand using monotonic and cyclic laboratory tests as well as a centrifuge model test comprised of a submerged slope. The dynamic response of the sand is modeled using a critical state compatible, stress ratio-based, bounding surface plasticity constitutive model (PM4Sand), implemented in the commercial finite-difference platform FLAC, and PM4Sand’s performance is evaluated against a comprehensive testing program comprised of laboratory data and a well-instrumented centrifuge model test. Three different calibrations informed by the lab and centrifuge data are performed and the goodness of the predictions is discussed. Conclusions are drawn with regards to the performance of the simulations against the laboratory and centrifuge data, and recommendations about the calibration of the model are provided. 
    more » « less
  5. A broad spectrum of well-graded, coarse-grained soils are commonly present in natural deposits, though characterization of these materials has been approximated using sand-based engineering methods in liquefaction evaluations. Through combined results of 31 constant stress direct simple shear and drained triaxial compression tests, this study experimentally investigates the effect of mean grain size (D50) and gradation (Cu) on the drained monotonic strength and stress-dilatancy of poorly- to well-graded, coarse-grained soils. Coarse-grained mixtures of varying D50 and gradations were prepared to relative densities of 20%–75% and tested under a range of overburden stresses. Results are analyzed in terms of the frictional resistance and dilative contributions to the shear strength of soils with varying gradations, as compared to clean sands, using different shearing modes. It is shown that (1) increased gradation of soils increases the peak shear strength and frictional resistance due to a greater initial rate of dilation exhibited in well-graded, coarse-grained soils; and (2) current stress-dilatancy relationships underestimate the dilative behavior of well-graded test materials. 
    more » « less
  6. Abstract On October 30, 2020 14:51 (UTC), a moment magnitude (M w ) of 7.0 (USGS, EMSC) earthquake occurred in the Aegean Sea north of the island of Samos, Greece. Turkish and Hellenic geotechnical reconnaissance teams were deployed immediately after the event and their findings are documented herein. The predominantly observed failure mechanism was that of earthquake-induced liquefaction and its associated impacts. Such failures are presented and discussed together with a preliminary assessment of the performance of building foundations, slopes and deep excavations, retaining structures and quay walls. On the Anatolian side (Turkey), and with the exception of the Izmir-Bayrakli region where significant site effects were observed, no major geotechnical effects were observed in the form of foundation failures, surface manifestation of liquefaction and lateral soil spreading, rock falls/landslides, failures of deep excavations, retaining structures, quay walls, and subway tunnels. In Samos (Greece), evidence of liquefaction, lateral spreading and damage to quay walls in ports were observed on the northern side of the island. Despite the proximity to the fault (about 10 km), the amplitude and the duration of shaking, the associated liquefaction phenomena were not pervasive. It is further unclear whether the damage to quay walls was due to liquefaction of the underlying soil, or merely due to the inertia of those structures, in conjunction with the presence of soft (yet not necessarily liquefied) foundation soil. A number of rockfalls/landslides were observed but the relevant phenomena were not particularly severe. Similar to the Anatolian side, no failures of engineered retaining structures and major infrastructure such as dams, bridges, viaducts, tunnels were observed in the island of Samos which can be mostly attributed to the lack of such infrastructure. 
    more » « less