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  1. Abstract

    Acoustic tweezers use ultrasound for contact-free manipulation of particles from millimeter to sub-micrometer scale. Particle trapping is usually associated with either radiation forces or acoustic streaming fields. Acoustic tweezers based on single-beam focused acoustic vortices have attracted considerable attention due to their selective trapping capability, but have proven difficult to use for three-dimensional (3D) trapping without a complex transducer array and significant constraints on the trapped particle properties. Here we demonstrate a 3D acoustic tweezer in fluids that uses a single transducer and combines the radiation force for trapping in two dimensions with the streaming force to provide levitationmore »in the third dimension. The idea is demonstrated in both simulation and experiments operating at 500 kHz, and the achieved levitation force reaches three orders of magnitude larger than for previous 3D trapping. This hybrid acoustic tweezer that integrates acoustic streaming adds an additional twist to the approach and expands the range of particles that can be manipulated.

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  2. Abstract

    The valley degree of freedom in crystals offers great potential for manipulating classical waves, however, few studies have investigated valley states with complex wavenumbers, valley states in graded systems, or dispersion tuning for valley states. Here, we present tunable valley phononic crystals (PCs) composed of hybrid channel-cavity cells with three tunable parameters. Our PCs support valley states and Dirac cones with complex wavenumbers. They can be configured to form chirped valley PCs in which edge modes are slowed to zero group velocity states, where the energy at different frequencies accumulates at different designated locations. They enable multiple functionalities, includingmore »tuning of dispersion relations for valley states, robust routing of surface acoustic waves, and spatial modulation of group velocities. This work may spark future investigations of topological states with complex wavenumbers in other classical systems, further study of topological states in graded materials, and the development of acoustic devices.

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  3. Acoustic tweezers use ultrasound for contact-free, bio-compatible, and precise manipulation of particles from millimeter to submicrometer scale. In microfluidics, acoustic tweezers typically use an array of sources to create standing wave patterns that can trap and move objects in ways constrained by the limited complexity of the acoustic wave field. Here, we demonstrate spatially complex particle trapping and manipulation inside a boundary-free chamber using a single pair of sources and an engineered structure outside the chamber that we call a shadow waveguide. The shadow waveguide creates a tightly confined, spatially complex acoustic field inside the chamber without requiring any interiormore »structure that would interfere with net flow or transport. Altering the input signals to the two sources creates trapped particle motion along an arbitrary path defined by the shadow waveguide. Particle trapping, particle manipulation and transport, and Thouless pumping are experimentally demonstrated.« less