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  1. Abstract

    We report the clean experimental realization of cubic–quintic complex Ginzburg–Landau (CQCGL) physics in a single driven, damped system. Four numerically predicted categories of complex dynamical behavior and pattern formation are identified for bright and dark solitary waves propagating around an active magnetic thin film-based feedback ring: (1) periodic breathing; (2) complex recurrence; (3) spontaneous spatial shifting; and (4) intermittency. These nontransient, long lifetime behaviors are observed in self-generated spin wave envelopes circulating within a dispersive, nonlinear yttrium iron garnet waveguide. The waveguide is operated in a ring geometry in which the net losses are directly compensated for via linear amplification on each round trip (of the order of 100 ns). These behaviors exhibit periods ranging from tens to thousands of round trip times (of the order ofμs) and are stable for 1000s of periods (of the order of ms). We present ten observations of these dynamical behaviors which span the experimentally accessible ranges of attractive cubic nonlinearity, dispersion, and external field strength that support the self-generation of backward volume spin waves in a four-wave-mixing dominant regime. Three-wave splitting is not explicitly forbidden and is treated as an additional source of nonlinear losses. All observed behaviors are robust over wide parameter regimes, making them promising for technological applications. We present ten experimental observations which span all categories of dynamical behavior previously theoretically predicted to be observable. This represents a complete experimental verification of the CQCGL equation as a model for the study of fundamental, complex nonlinear dynamics for driven, damped waves evolving in nonlinear, dispersive systems. The reported dynamical pattern formation of self-generated dark solitary waves in attractive nonlinearity without external sources or potentials, however, is entirely novel and is presented for both the periodic breather and complex recurrence behaviors.

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  2. Abstract

    Magnetoelastic coupling is considered as one of the most reliable method to induce nonreciprocity of propagation losses of microwave‐frequency surface acoustic waves (SAW) and other acoustic modes propagating in nonmagnetic‐ferromagnetic heterostructures. Here, it is demonstrated theoretically that magnetoelastic coupling can also induce phase nonreciprocity of SAW, which is necessary for the development of SAW circulators and other nonreciprocal solid‐state‐acoustic devices. In contrast to previous studies, induction of the phase nonreciprocity requires the coupling of SAW to a strongly nonreciprocal spin wave (SW), having the nonreciprocal splitting of the SW spectrum much larger than the strength of the magnetoelastic coupling, which, in turn, should be much larger than the geometric mean of the SW and SAW damping rates. In this case, the hybridized SAW in the spectral region between the magnetoelastic gaps demonstrate significant phase nonreciprocity, retaining, at the same time, propagation losses that are close to those of unhybridized SAW. Possible practical realization of nonreciprocal SAW phase shifters and SAW‐ring‐based circulators based on hybridized waves in acoustic crystal and synthetic antiferromagnetic heterostructures is discussed.

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  3. Abstract

    Spin-orbit torque nano-oscillators based on bilayers of ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic metals are ultra-compact current-controlled microwave signal sources. They are attractive for practical applications such as microwave assisted magnetic recording, neuromorphic computing, and chip-to-chip wireless communications. However, a major drawback of these devices is low output microwave power arising from the relatively small anisotropic magnetoresistance of the ferromagnetic layer. Here we experimentally show that the output power of a spin-orbit torque nano-oscillator can be significantly enhanced without compromising its structural simplicity. Addition of a ferromagnetic reference layer to the oscillator allows us to employ current-in-plane giant magnetoresistance to boost the output power of the device. This enhancement of the output power is a result of both large magnitude of giant magnetoresistance compared to that of anisotropic magnetoresistance and their different angular dependencies. Our results hold promise for practical applications of spin-orbit torque nano-oscillators.

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  4. Abstract

    This article reports damping enhancement in a ferromagnetic NiFe thin film due to an adjacent α‐Sn thin film. Ferromagnetic resonance studies show that an α‐Sn film separated from a NiFe film by an ultrathin Ag spacer can cause an extra damping in the NiFe film that is three times bigger than the intrinsic damping of the NiFe film. Such an extra damping is absent in structures where the α‐Sn film interfaces directly with a NiFe film, or is replaced by a β‐Sn film. The data suggest that the extra damping is associated with topologically nontrivial surface states in the topological Dirac semimetal phase of the α‐Sn film. This work suggests that, like topological insulators, topological Dirac semimetal α‐Sn may have promising applications in spintronics.

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  5. Abstract

    Spin Hall oscillators (SHO) are promising candidates for the generation, detection and amplification of high frequency signals, that are tunable through a wide range of operating frequencies. They offer to be read out electrically, magnetically and optically in combination with a simple bilayer design. Here, we experimentally study the spatial dependence and spectral properties of auto-oscillations in SHO devices based on Pt(7 nm)/Ni80Fe20(5 nm) tapered nanowires. Using Brillouin light scattering microscopy, we observe two individual self-localized spin-wave bullets that oscillate at two distinct frequencies (5.2 GHz and 5.45 GHz) and are localized at different positions separated by about 750 nm within the SHO. This state of a tapered SHO has been predicted by a Ginzburg-Landau auto-oscillator model, but not yet been directly confirmed experimentally. We demonstrate that the observed bullets can be individually synchronized to external microwave signals, leading to a frequency entrainment, linewidth reduction and increase in oscillation amplitude for the bullet that is selected by the microwave frequency. At the same time, the amplitude of other parasitic modes decreases, which promotes the single-mode operation of the SHO. Finally, the synchronization of the spin-wave bullets is studied as a function of the microwave power. We believe that our findings promote the realization of extended spin Hall oscillators accomodating several distinct spin-wave bullets, that jointly cover an extended range of tunability.

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  6. Abstract

    Electric‐field‐controlled magnetism is of importance in realizing energy efficient, dense and fast information storage and processing. Strain‐mediated converse magneto‐electric (ME) coupling between ferromagnetic and ferroelectric heterostructure shows promise for realizing electric‐controlled magnetism at room temperature and is attracting a number of recent investigations. However, such ME‐effect studies have mainly focus on magnetic metals. In this work, high quality yttrium iron garnet (Y3Fe5O12(YIG)) films are deposited directly onto (100)‐oriented single‐crystal Pb (Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3(PMN‐PT) substrates by means of magnetron sputtering. The electric‐field‐induced polarization switching and lattice strain in the PMN‐PT substrate results in two distinct magnetization states in the YIG film that are nonvolatile and electrically reversible. Because of the direct contact between the YIG and the PMN‐PT substrate, an efficient ME coupling and an almost 90° rotation of the easy axis of the YIG film can be realized. Furthermore, the electric‐field‐controlled hysteresis loop‐like ferromagnetic resonance field shifts and spin pumping signals are observed in Pt/YIG/PMN‐PT heterostructures. Thus, the obstacle is overcome via growing high‐quality YIG thin films directly onto PMN‐PT substrates and an efficient manipulation of magnetism and pure spin current transport by electric field is thereby realized. These findings are instructive for future low‐power magnetic insulator‐based spintronic devices.

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  7. Topological Dirac semimetal α-Sn exhibits unexpectedly large bilinear magnetoelectric resistance at room temperature. 
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