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  1. Abstract

    This work evaluates how well Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 6 models reproduce the climatology of North American severe convective storm (SCS) environments in ERA5 reanalysis and examines what drives biases across models. Biases in spring SCS environments vary widely in magnitude and spatial pattern, though most models do well in reproducing the climatological pattern and a few (MPI and CNRM) also reproduce the overall magnitude. SCS biases are driven by biases in extreme convective available potential energy. These biases are ultimately found to be driven by biases in mean‐state near‐surface moist static energy, indicating that the SCS environments depend strongly on the near‐surface mean state. Results are similar for fall, but not summer or winter when free‐tropospheric biases are also important. Biases differ strongly across parent models but weakly across child models of the same parent. These outcomes help identify models well‐suited for studying climate effects on SCS environments.

     
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  2. Abstract

    Common assumptions in temperature lapse rate formulas for lifted air parcels include neglecting mixing, hydrostatic balance, the removal of all condensate once it forms (pseudoadiabatic), and/or the retention of all condensate within the parcel (adiabatic). These formulas are commonly derived from the conservation of entropy, which leads to errors when nonequilibrium mixed-phase condensate is present. To evaluate these assumptions, a new general lapse rate formula is derived from an expression for energy conservation, rather than entropy conservation. This new formula incorporates mixing of the parcel with its surroundings, relaxes the hydrostatic assumption, allows for nonequilibrium mixed-phase condensate, and can be formulated for pseudoadiabatic or adiabatic ascent. The new formula is shown to exactly conserve entropy for reversible ascent. Predictions by the new formula are compared to that of older and less general formulas. The errors in previous formulas arise from the assumption of hydrostatic balance, which results in considerable warm biases due to the neglect of the energy sink from buoyancy. Predictions of ascent with entrainment using the new formula are then compared to parcel properties along trajectories in large eddy simulations. Simulated parcel properties are better predicted by the formula using a diluted analogy to adiabatic ascent, wherein condensate is diluted at the same rate as other parcel properties, than by the diluted analogy to pseudoadiabatic ascent, wherein all condensate is removed. These results suggest that CAPE should be computed with adiabatic, rather than pseudoadiabatic, parcel ascent.

     
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  3. Abstract

    It is often assumed in parcel theory calculations, numerical models, and cumulus parameterizations that moist static energy (MSE) is adiabatically conserved. However, the adiabatic conservation of MSE is only approximate because of the assumption of hydrostatic balance. Two alternative variables are evaluated here: MSE − IB and MSE + KE, wherein IB is the path integral of buoyancy (B) and KE is kinetic energy. Both of these variables relax the hydrostatic assumption and are more precisely conserved than MSE. This article quantifies the errors that result from assuming that the aforementioned variables are conserved in large-eddy simulations (LES) of both disorganized and organized deep convection. Results show that both MSE − IB and MSE + KE better predict quantities along trajectories than MSE alone. MSE − IB is better conserved in isolated deep convection, whereas MSE − IB and MSE + KE perform comparably in squall-line simulations. These results are explained by differences between the pressure perturbation behavior of squall lines and isolated convection. Errors in updraftBdiagnoses are universally minimized when MSE − IB is assumed to be adiabatically conserved, but only when moisture dependencies of heat capacity and temperature dependency of latent heating are accounted for. When less accurate latent heat and heat capacity formulae were used, MSE − IB yielded poorerBpredictions than MSE due to compensating errors. Our results suggest that various applications would benefit from using either MSE − IB or MSE + KE instead of MSE with properly formulated heat capacities and latent heats.

     
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  4. Abstract The prevailing conceptual model for the production of severe local storm (SLS) environments over North America asserts that upstream elevated terrain and the Gulf of Mexico are both essential to their formation. This work tests this hypothesis using two prescribed-ocean climate model experiments with North American topography removed or the Gulf of Mexico converted to land and analyzes how SLS environments and associated synoptic-scale drivers (southerly Great Plains low-level jets, drylines, elevated mixed layers, and extratropical cyclones) change relative to a control historical run. Overall, SLS environments depend strongly on upstream elevated terrain but more weakly on the Gulf of Mexico. Removing elevated terrain substantially reduces SLS environments especially over the continental interior due to broad reductions in both thermodynamic instability and vertical wind shear, leaving a more zonally uniform residual distribution that is maximized near the Gulf coast and decays toward the continental interior. This response is associated with a strong reduction in synoptic-scale drivers and a cooler and drier mean-state atmosphere. Replacing the Gulf of Mexico with land modestly reduces SLS environments over the Great Plains (driven primarily thermodynamically) and increases them over the eastern United States (driven primarily kinematically), shifting the primary local maximum eastward into Illinois; it also eliminates the secondary, smaller local maximum over southern Texas. This response is associated with modest changes in synoptic-scale drivers and a warmer and drier lower troposphere. These experiments provide insight into the role of elevated terrain and the Gulf of Mexico in modifying the spatial distribution and seasonality of SLS environments. 
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  5. null (Ed.)
    Abstract This work develops a theoretical model for steady thermodynamic and kinematic profiles for severe convective storm environments, building off the two-layer static energy framework developed in work by Agard and Emanuel. The model is phrased in terms of static energy, and it allows for independent variation of the boundary layer and free troposphere separated by a capping inversion. An algorithm is presented to apply the model to generate a sounding for numerical simulations of severe convective storms, and the model is compared and contrasted with that of Weisman and Klemp. The model is then fit to a case-study sounding associated with the 3 May 1999 tornado outbreak, and its potential utility is demonstrated via idealized numerical simulation experiments. A long-lived supercell is successfully simulated with the historical sounding but not the analogous theoretical sounding. Two types of example experiments are then performed that do simulate a long-lived supercell: 1) a semitheoretical experiment in which a portion of the theoretical sounding is modified to match the real sounding (low-level moisture); 2) a fully theoretical experiment in which a model physical parameter is modified (free-tropospheric relative humidity). Overall, the construction of this minimal model is flexible and amenable to additional modifications as needed. The model offers a novel framework that may be useful for testing how severe convective storms depend on the vertical structure of the hydrostatic environment, as well as for linking variability in these environments to the physical processes that produce them within the climate system. 
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  6. null (Ed.)
    Abstract Severe local storm (SLS) activity is known to occur within specific thermodynamic and kinematic environments. These environments are commonly associated with key synoptic-scale features—including southerly Great Plains low-level jets, drylines, elevated mixed layers, and extratropical cyclones—that link the large-scale climate to SLS environments. This work analyzes spatiotemporal distributions of both extreme values of SLS environmental parameters and synoptic-scale features in the ERA5 reanalysis and in the Community Atmosphere Model, version 6 (CAM6), historical simulation during 1980–2014 over North America. Compared to radiosondes, ERA5 successfully reproduces SLS environments, with strong spatiotemporal correlations and low biases, especially over the Great Plains. Both ERA5 and CAM6 reproduce the climatology of SLS environments over the central United States as well as its strong seasonal and diurnal cycles. ERA5 and CAM6 also reproduce the climatological occurrence of the synoptic-scale features, with the distribution pattern similar to that of SLS environments. Compared to ERA5, CAM6 exhibits a high bias in convective available potential energy over the eastern United States primarily due to a high bias in surface moisture and, to a lesser extent, storm-relative helicity due to enhanced low-level winds. Composite analysis indicates consistent synoptic anomaly patterns favorable for significant SLS environments over much of the eastern half of the United States in both ERA5 and CAM6, though the pattern differs for the southeastern United States. Overall, our results indicate that both ERA5 and CAM6 are capable of reproducing SLS environments as well as the synoptic-scale features and transient events that generate them. 
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  7. Recent research suggests that surface elevation variability may influence tornado activity, though separating this effect from reporting biases is difficult to do in observations. Here we employ Bayes’s law to calculate the empirical joint dependence of tornado probability on population density and elevation roughness in the vicinity of Arkansas for the period 1955–2015. This approach is based purely on data, exploits elevation and population information explicitly in the vicinity of each tornado, and enables an explicit test of the dependence of results on elevation roughness length scale. A simple log-link linear regression fit to this empirical distribution yields an 11% decrease in tornado probability per 10-m increase in elevation roughness at fixed population density for large elevation roughness length scales (15–20 km). This effect increases by at least a factor of 2 moving toward smaller length scales down to 1 km. The elevation effect exhibits no time trend, while the population bias effect decreases systematically in time, consistent with the improvement of reporting practices. Results are robust across time periods and the exclusion of EF1 tornadoes and are consistent with recent county-level and gridded analyses. This work highlights the need for a deeper physical understanding of how elevation heterogeneity affects tornadogenesis and also provides the foundation for a general Bayesian tornado probability model that integrates both meteorological and nonmeteorological parameters.

     
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