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  1. Abstract

    Computational thinking (CT), the ability to devise computational solutions for real‐life problems, has received growing attention from both educators and researchers. To better improve university students' CT competence, collaborative programming is regarded as an effective learning approach. However, how novice programmers develop CT competence through collaborative problem solving remains unclear. This study adopted an innovative approach, quantitative ethnography, to analyze the collaborative programming activities of a high‐performing and a low‐performing team. Both the discourse analysis and epistemic network models revealed that across concepts, practices, and identity, the high‐performing team exhibited CT that was systematic, whereas the CT of the low‐performing team was characterized by tinkering or guess‐and‐check approaches. However, the low‐performing group's CT development trajectory ultimately converged towards the high‐performing group's. This study thus improves understanding of how novices learn CT, and it illustrates a useful method for modeling CT based in authentic problem‐solving contexts.

     
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  2. Studying interactions faces methodological challenges and existing methods, such as configural diagramming, have limitations. This work demonstrates Epistemic Network Analysis (ENA) as an analytical method to construct configural diagrams. We demonstrated ENA as an analytical tool by applying this method to study dementia caregiver work systems. We conducted 20 semistructured interviews with caregivers to collect caregiving experiences. Guided by the Patient Work System model, we conducted a directed content analysis to identify work system components and used ENA to study interactions between components. By using ENA to create configural diagrams, we identified five frequently occurring interactions, compared work system configurations of caregivers providing care at home and away from home. Although we were underpowered to determine statistically significant differences, we identified visual and qualitative differences. Our results demonstrate the capability of ENA as 
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  3. Wasson, B. (Ed.)
    Visualization plays an important role in Epistemic Network Analysis (ENA), not only in graphical representation but also to facilitate interpretation and communicate research findings. However, there is no published description of the design features behind ENA network graphs. This paper provides this description from a graphic design perspective, focusing on the design principles that make ENA network graphs aesthetically pleasing and intuitive to understand. By reviewing graphic design principles and examining other extant network visualizations, we show how the current ENA network graphs highlight the most important network characteristics and facilitate sense-making. 
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  4. Wasson, B. ; Zörgő, S. (Ed.)
  5. Objective This study investigates how team cognition occurs in care transitions from operating room (OR) to intensive care unit (ICU). We then seek to understand how the sociotechnical system and team cognition are related. Background Effective handoffs are critical to ensuring patient safety and have been the subject of many improvement efforts. However, the types of team-level cognitive processing during handoffs have not been explored, nor is it clear how the sociotechnical system shapes team cognition. Method We conducted this study in an academic, Level 1 trauma center in the Midwestern United States. Twenty-eight physicians (surgery, anesthesia, pediatric critical care) and nurses (OR, ICU) participated in semi-structured interviews. We performed qualitative content analysis and epistemic network analysis to understand the relationships between system factors, team cognition in handoffs and outcomes. Results Participants described three team cognition functions in handoffs—(1) information exchange, (2) assessment, and (3) planning and decision making; information exchange was mentioned most. Work system factors influenced team cognition. Inter-professional handoffs facilitated information exchange but included large teams with diverse backgrounds communicating, which can be inefficient. Intra-professional handoffs decreased team size and role diversity, which may simplify communication but increase information loss. Participants in inter-professional handoffs reflected on outcomes significantly more in relation to system factors and team cognition ( p < 0.001), while participants in intra-professional handoffs discussed handoffs as a task. Conclusion Handoffs include team cognition, which was influenced by work system design. Opportunities for handoff improvement include a flexibly standardized process and supportive tools/technologies. We recommend incorporating perspectives of the patient and family in future work. 
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  6. Wasson, B. ; Zörgő, S. (Ed.)
  7. Wasson, B. ; Zörgő, S. (Ed.)
    Quantitative Ethnography is a nascent field now formulating the specifics of its conceptual framework and terminology for a unified, quantitative – qualitative methodology. Our living, systematic review aims to shed light on decisions in research design that the community has made thus far in the domain of data collection, coding & segmentation, analysis, and how Quantitative Ethnography as a methodology is conceptualized. Our analysis intends to spur discussions on these issues within the community and help establish a lingua franca. 
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  8. Wasson, B. ; Zörgő, S. (Ed.)