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  1. Changes in structure and function of small muscular arteries play a major role in the pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension, a burgeoning public health challenge. Improved anatomically mimetic in vitro models of these microvessels are urgently needed because nonhuman vessels and previous models do not accurately recapitulate the microenvironment and architecture of the human microvascular wall. Here, we describe parallel biofabrication of photopatterned self-rolled biomimetic pulmonary arterial microvessels of tunable size and infrastructure. These microvessels feature anatomically accurate layering and patterning of aligned human smooth muscle cells, extracellular matrix, and endothelial cells and exhibit notable increases in endothelial longevity and nitric oxide production. Computational image processing yielded high-resolution 3D perspectives of cells and proteins. Our studies provide a new paradigm for engineering multicellular tissues with precise 3D spatial positioning of multiple constituents in planar moieties, providing a biomimetic platform for investigation of microvascular pathobiology in human disease.