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  1. null (Ed.)
  2. Based on Coulomb's Law alone, electrostatic repulsion between two anions is expected to prevent their dimerization. Contrary to that idea, this Tutorial Review will present evidence showing that anion–anion dimers of protic hydroxyanions can form readily, and describe conditions that facilitate their formation. From X-ray crystal structures, we learn that hydroxyanions dimerize and oligomerize by overcoming long-range electrostatic opposition. Common examples are hydroxyanions of phosphate, sulfate, and carbonate, often in partnership with charged and neutral receptors. Short-range hydrogen bonds between anionic donors and acceptors are defined as anti-electrostatic hydrogen bonds (AEHBs) with insight from theoretical studies. While anion dimers are difficult to identify unequivocally in solution, these solution dimers have recently been definitively identified. The development of the supramolecular chemistry of anion–anion dimers has led to applications in hierarchical assemblies, such as supramolecular polymers and hydrogen bonded organic frameworks. 
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  3. The rate at which the macrocyclic cyclobis(paraquat- p -phenylene) ring of a bistable [2]rotaxane moves from a tetrathiafulvalene station to an oxyphenylene station upon oxidation of the tetrathiafulvalene station is found to be increased in the presence of added salts. Compared to the salt-free case, 0.1 M solutions of a series of tetraalkylammonium hexafluorophosphate salts (R 4 N·PF 6 , R = H, Me, Et or n -Bu) and of tetrabutylammonium perchlorate ( n -Bu 4 N·ClO 4 ) all afford an increased switching rate, which is largest in the case of n -Bu 4 N·ClO 4 with smaller anions. Variation in the size of the ammonium cation has no significant effect. These results indicate that the addition of excess ions can be used as an accelerator to speed up shuttling processes in rotaxanes and catenanes based on the mobile cyclobis(paraquat- p -phenylene) ring, and that the choice of anion offers a convenient means of controlling the extent of this effect. 
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