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  1. ABSTRACT We study the production of barium (Ba) and strontium (Sr) in ultrafaint dwarf (UFDs) galaxies. Both r- and s- processes produce these elements, and one can infer the contribution of the r-process from the characteristic r-process abundance pattern, whereas the s-process contribution remains largely unknown. We show that the current s-process yield from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars is not sufficient to explain the Ba and Sr abundances observed in UFDs. Production of these elements would need to be efficient from the beginning of star formation in the galaxies. The discrepancy of nearly or more than 1 dex is notmore »reconciled even if we consider s-process in super-AGB stars. We consider a possible resolution by assuming rotating massive stars (RMSs) and electron-capture supernovae (ECSNe) as additional contributors. We find that the RMSs could be the origin of Ba in UFDs if ∼10 per cent of massive stars are rotating at 300 km s−1. As for ECSNe, we argue that their fraction is less than 2 per cent of core-collapse supernova. It narrows the progenitor mass-range to ${\lesssim}0.1\, \mathrm{M}_\odot$ at −3 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ −2. We also explore another resolution by modifying the stellar initial mass function (IMF) in UFDs and find a top-light IMF model that reproduces the observed level of Ba-enrichment. Future observations that determine or tightly constrain the europium and nitrogen abundances are crucial to identify the origin of Ba and Sr in UFDs.« less
  2. ABSTRACT We present atmospheric parameters and abundances for chemical elements from carbon to barium in metal-poor stars in Segue 1 (seven stars), Coma Berenices (three stars), and Triangulum ii (one star) ultrafaint dwarf galaxies (UFDs). The effective temperatures rely on new photometric observations in the visible and infra-red bands, obtained with the 2.5 m telescope of the SAI MSU Caucasian observatory. Abundances of up to fourteen chemical elements were derived under the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) line formation, and LTE abundances were obtained for up to five more elements. For the first time, we present abundance of oxygen in Seg 1 S1 and S4,more »silicon in ComaBer S2 and Tri ii S40, potassium in Seg 1 S1−S6 and ComaBer S1−S3, and barium in Seg 1 S7. Three stars in Segue 1, two stars in Coma Berenices, and Triangulum ii star have very low [Na/Mg] of −1.08 to −1.67 dex, which is usually attributed in the literature to an odd–even effect produced by nucleosynthesis in massive metal-free stars. We interpret this chemical property as a footprint of first stars, which is not blurred due to a small number of nucleosynthesis events that contributed to chemical abundance patterns of the sample stars. Our NLTE abundances of Sr and Ba in Coma Berenices, Segue 1, and Triangulum ii report on lower [Sr/Ba] abundance ratio in the UFDs compared to that in classical dwarf spheroidal galaxies and the Milky Way halo. However, in UFDs, just as in massive galaxies, [Sr/Ba] is not constant and it can be higher than the pure r-process ratio. We suggest a hypothesis of Sr production in metal-poor binaries at the earliest epoch of galactic evolution.« less
  3. ABSTRACT In this work, we combine spectroscopic information from the SkyMapper survey for Extremely Metal-Poor stars and astrometry from Gaia DR2 to investigate the kinematics of a sample of 475 stars with a metallicity range of $-6.5 \le \rm [Fe/H] \le -2.05$ dex. Exploiting the action map, we identify 16 and 40 stars dynamically consistent with the Gaia Sausage and Gaia Sequoia accretion events, respectively. The most metal poor of these candidates have metallicities of $\rm [Fe/H]=-3.31\, \mathrm{ and }\, -3.74$, respectively, helping to define the low-metallicity tail of the progenitors involved in the accretion events. We also find, consistentmore »with other studies, that ∼21 per cent of the sample have orbits that remain confined to within 3 kpc of the Galactic plane, that is, |Zmax| ≤ 3 kpc. Of particular interest is a subsample (∼11 per cent of the total) of low |Zmax| stars with low eccentricities and prograde motions. The lowest metallicity of these stars has [Fe/H] = –4.30 and the subsample is best interpreted as the very low-metallicity tail of the metal-weak thick disc population. The low |Zmax|, low eccentricity stars with retrograde orbits are likely accreted, while the low |Zmax|, high eccentricity pro- and retrograde stars are plausibly associated with the Gaia Sausage system. We find that a small fraction of our sample (∼4 per cent of the total) is likely escaping from the Galaxy, and postulate that these stars have gained energy from gravitational interactions that occur when infalling dwarf galaxies are tidally disrupted.« less