The equation for a traveling wave on the boundary of a two‐dimensional droplet of an ideal fluid is derived by using the conformal variables technique for free surface waves. The free surface is subject only to the force of surface tension and the fluid flow is assumed to be potential. We use the canonical Hamiltonian variables discovered and map the lower complex plane to the interior of a fluid droplet conformally. The equations in this form have been originally discovered for infinitely deep water and later adapted to a bounded fluid domain.The new class of solutions satisfies a pseudodifferential equation similar to the Babenko equation for the Stokes wave. We illustrate with numerical solutions of the time‐dependent equations and observe the linear limit of traveling waves in this geometry.
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Abstract 
Abstract Periodic traveling waves are numerically computed in a constant vorticity flow subject to the force of gravity. The Stokes wave problem is formulated via a conformal mapping as a nonlinear pseudodifferential equation, involving a periodic Hilbert transform for a strip, and solved by the Newton‐GMRES method. For strong positive vorticity, in the finite or infinite depth, overhanging profiles are found as the amplitude increases and tend to a touching wave, whose surface contacts itself at the trough line, enclosing an air bubble; numerical solutions become unphysical as the amplitude increases further and make a gap in the wave speed versus amplitude plane; another touching wave takes over and physical solutions follow along the fold in the wave speed versus amplitude plane until they ultimately tend to an extreme wave, which exhibits a corner at the crest. Touching waves connected to zero amplitude are found to approach the limiting Crapper wave as the strength of positive vorticity increases unboundedly, while touching waves connected to the extreme waves approach the rigid body rotation of a fluid disk.

null (Ed.)A potential motion of ideal incompressible fluid with a free surface and infinite depth is considered in twodimensional geometry. A timedependent conformal mapping of the lower complex halfplane of the auxiliary complex variable w into the area filled with fluid is performed with the real line of w mapped into the free fluid’s surface. The fluid dynamics can be fully characterized by the motion of the complex singularities in the analytical continuation of both the conformal mapping and the complex velocity. We consider the short branch cut approximation of the dynamics with the small parameter being the ratio of the length of the branch cut to the distance between its centre and the real line of w . We found that the fluid dynamics in that approximation is reduced to the complex Hopf equation for the complex velocity coupled with the complex transport equation for the conformal mapping. These equations are fully integrable by characteristics producing the infinite family of solutions, including moving square root branch points and poles. These solutions involve practical initial conditions resulting in jets and overturning waves. The solutions are compared with the simulations of the fully nonlinear Eulerian dynamics giving excellent agreement even when the small parameter approaches about one.more » « less

We address the problem of the potential motion of an ideal incompressible fluid with a free surface and infinite depth in a twodimensional geometry. We admit the presence of gravity forces and surface tension. A timedependent conformal mapping $z(w,t)$ of the lower complex halfplane of the variable $w$ into the area filled with fluid is performed with the real line of $w$ mapped into the free fluid’s surface. We study the dynamics of singularities of both $z(w,t)$ and the complex fluid potential $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6F1}(w,t)$ in the upper complex halfplane of $w$ . We show the existence of solutions with an arbitrary finite number $N$ of complex poles in $z_{w}(w,t)$ and $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6F1}_{w}(w,t)$ which are the derivatives of $z(w,t)$ and $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6F1}(w,t)$ over $w$ . We stress that these solutions are not purely rational because they generally have branch points at other positions of the upper complex halfplane. The orders of poles can be arbitrary for zero surface tension while all orders are even for nonzero surface tension. We find that the residues of $z_{w}(w,t)$ at these $N$ points are new, previously unknown, constants of motion, see also Zakharov & Dyachenko (2012, authors’ unpublished observations, arXiv:1206.2046 ) for the preliminary results. All these constants of motion commute with each other in the sense of the underlying Hamiltonian dynamics. In the absence of both gravity and surface tension, the residues of $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6F1}_{w}(w,t)$ are also the constants of motion while nonzero gravity $g$ ensures a trivial linear dependence of these residues on time. A Laurent series expansion of both $z_{w}(w,t)$ and $\unicode[STIX]{x1D6F1}_{w}(w,t)$ at each poles position reveals the existence of additional integrals of motion for poles of the second order. If all poles are simple then the number of independent real integrals of motion is $4N$ for zero gravity and $4N1$ for nonzero gravity. For the secondorder poles we found $6N$ motion integrals for zero gravity and $6N1$ for nonzero gravity. We suggest that the existence of these nontrivial constants of motion provides an argument in support of the conjecture of complete integrability of free surface hydrodynamics in deep water. Analytical results are solidly supported by high precision numerics.more » « less

We derive a set of equations in conformal variables that describe a potential flow of an ideal twodimensional inviscid fluid with free surface in a bounded domain. This formulation is free of numerical instabilities present in the equations for the surface elevation and potential derived in Dyachenko et al. ( Plasma Phys. Rep. vol. 22 (10), 1996, pp. 829–840) with some restrictions on analyticity relieved, which allows to treat a finite volume of fluid enclosed by a freemoving boundary. We illustrate with a comparison of numerical simulations of the Dirichlet ellipse, an exact solution for a zero surface tension fluid. We demonstrate how the oscillations of the free surface of a unit disc droplet may lead to breaking of one droplet into two when surface tension is present.more » « less