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  1. Abstract Fabrication of micro- and nanoscale electronic components has become increasingly demanding due to device and interconnect scaling combined with advanced packaging and assembly for electronic, aerospace, and medical applications. Recent advances in additive manufacturing have made it possible to fabricate microscale, 3D interconnect structures but heat transfer during the fabrication process is one of the most important phenomena influencing the reliable manufacturing of these interconnect structures. In this study, optical absorption and scattering by three-dimensional (3D) nanoparticle packings are investigated to gain insight into micro/nano heat transport within the nanoparticles. Because drying of colloidal solutions creates different configurations of nanoparticles, the plasmonic coupling in three different copper nanoparticle packing configurations was investigated: simple cubic (SC), face-centered cubic (FCC), and hexagonal close packing (HCP). Single-scatter albedo (ω) was analyzed as a function of nanoparticle size, packing density, and configuration to assess effect for thermo-optical properties and plasmonic coupling of the Cu nanoparticles within the nanoparticle packings. This analysis provides insight into plasmonically enhanced absorption in copper nanoparticle particles and its consequences for laser heating of nanoparticle assemblies.
  2. Abstract This work seeks to develop a fundamental understanding of slot-die coating as a nanoparticle bed deposition mechanism for a microscale selective laser sintering (μ-SLS) process. The specific requirements of the μ-SLS process to deposit uniform sub-5 μm metal nanoparticle films while enabling high throughput fabrication make the slot-die coating process a strong candidate for layer-by-layer deposition. The key challenges of a coating system are to enable uniform nanoparticle ink deposition in an intermittent layer-by-layer manner. Identifying the experimental parameters to achieve this using a slot-die coating process is difficult. Therefore, the main contribution of this study is to develop a framework to predict the wet film thickness and onset of coating defects by simulating the experimental conditions of the μ-SLS process. The single-layer deposition characteristics and the operational window for the slot-die coating setup have been investigated through experiments and two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations. The effect of coating parameters such as inlet speed, coating speed, and coating gap on the wet film thickness has been analyzed. For inlet speeds higher than the coating speed, it was found that the meniscus was susceptible to high instabilities leading to coating defects. Additionally, the study outlines the conditions for which the stabilitymore »of the menisci upstream and downstream of the slot-die coater can affect the uniformity and thickness range of the coating.« less
  3. Abstract Nanoparticle heating due to laser irradiation is of great interest in electronic, aerospace, and biomedical applications. This paper presents a coupled electromagnetic-heat transfer model to predict the temperature distribution of multilayer copper nanoparticle packings on a glass substrate. It is shown that heat transfer within the nanoparticle packing is dominated by the interfacial thermal conductance between particles when the interfacial thermal conductance constant, GIC, is greater than 20 MW/m2K, but that for lower GIC values, thermal conduction through the air around the nanoparticles can also play a role in the overall heat transfer within the nanoparticle system. The coupled model is used to simulate heat transfer in a copper nanoparticle packing used in a typical microscale selective laser sintering (μ-SLS) process with an experimentally measured particle size distribution and layer thickness. The simulations predict that the nanoparticles will reach a temperature of 730 ± 3 K for a laser irradiation of 2.6 kW/cm2 and 1304 ± 23 K for a laser irradiation of 6 kW/cm2. These results are in good agreement with the experimentally observed laser-induced sintering and melting thresholds for copper nanoparticle packing on glass substrates.