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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 18, 2022
  2. Aim:Although clinicians primarily diagnose dementia based on a combination of metrics such as medical history and formal neuropsychological tests, recent work using linguistic analysis of narrative speech to identify dementia has shown promising results. We aim to build upon research by Thomas JA & Burkardt HA et al. (J Alzheimers Dis. 2020;76:905–2) and Alhanai et al. (arXiv:1710.07551v1. 2020) on the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) Cognitive Aging Cohort by 1) demonstrating the predictive capability of linguistic analysis in differentiating cognitively normal from cognitively impaired participants and 2) comparing the performance of the original linguistic features with the performance of expanded features.Methods:Datamore »were derived from a subset of the FHS Cognitive Aging Cohort. We analyzed a sub-selection of 98 participants, which provided 127 unique audio files and clinical observations (n = 127, female = 47%, cognitively impaired = 43%). We built on previous work which extracted original linguistic features from transcribed audio files by extracting expanded features. We used both feature sets to train logistic regression classifiers to distinguish cognitively normal from cognitively impaired participants and compared the predictive power of the original and expanded linguistic feature sets, and participants’ Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores.Results:Based on the area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (AUC) of the models, both the original (AUC = 0.882) and expanded (AUC = 0.883) feature sets outperformed MMSE (AUC = 0.870) in classifying cognitively impaired and cognitively normal participants. Although the original and expanded feature sets had similar AUC, the expanded feature set showed better positive and negative predictive value [expanded: positive predictive value (PPV) = 0.738, negative predictive value (NPV) = 0.889; original: PPV = 0.701, NPV = 0.869].Conclusions:Linguistic analysis has been shown to be a potentially powerful tool for clinical use in classifying cognitive impairment. This study expands the work of several others, but further studies into the plausibility of speech analysis in clinical use are vital to ensure the validity of speech analysis for clinical classification of cognitive impairment.« less
  3. Modern agent-based models (ABM) and other simulation models require evaluation and testing of many different parameters. Managing that testing for large scale parameter sweeps (grid searches), as well as storing simulation data, requires multiple, potentially customizable steps that may vary across simulations. Furthermore, parameter testing, processing, and analysis are slowed if simulation and processing jobs cannot be shared across teammates or computational resources. While high-performance computing (HPC) has become increasingly available, models can often be tested faster with the use of multiple computers and HPC resources. To address these issues, we created the Distributed Automated Parameter Testing (DAPT) Python package.more »By hosting parameters in an online (and often free) “database”, multiple individuals can run parameter sets simultaneously in a distributed fashion, enabling ad hoc crowdsourcing of computational power. Combining this with a flexible, scriptable tool set, teams can evaluate models and assess their underlying hypotheses quickly. Here, we describe DAPT and provide an example demonstrating its use.« less
  4. Research has found that the vividness of conscious experience is related to brain dynamics. Despite both being anaesthetics, propofol and ketamine produce different subjective states: we explore the different effects of these two anaesthetics on the structure of dynamic attractors reconstructed from electrophysiological activity recorded from cerebral cortex of two macaques. We used two methods: the first embeds the recordings in a continuous high-dimensional manifold on which we use topological data analysis to infer the presence of higher-order dynamics. The second reconstruction, an ordinal partition network embedding, allows us to create a discrete state-transition network, which is amenable to information-theoreticmore »analysis and contains rich information about state-transition dynamics. We find that the awake condition generally had the ‘richest’ structure, visiting the most states, the presence of pronounced higher-order structures, and the least deterministic dynamics. By contrast, the propofol condition had the most dissimilar dynamics, transitioning to a more impoverished, constrained, low-structure regime. The ketamine condition, interestingly, seemed to combine aspects of both: while it was generally less complex than the awake condition, it remained well above propofol in almost all measures. These results provide deeper and more comprehensive insights than what is typically gained by using point-measures of complexity.« less
  5. Abstract The implementation of body-worn cameras (BWC) by policing agencies has received widespread support from many individuals, including citizens and police officers. Despite their increasing prevalence, little is known about how the point-of-view (POV) of these cameras affects perceptions of viewers. In this research, we investigate how POV interacts with skin color of citizens in police use of force videos to affect perceptions of procedural justice. In an experimental study, participants watched eight police use of force videos—half recorded from BWC and half from an onlooker’s perspective—in which skin tone of the citizen varied. Results indicate that POV interacts withmore »citizen skin tone such that, compared to the onlooker perspective, the BWC exacerbated viewer racial bias against dark skin tone citizens. Furthermore, identification with the police officer fully mediated this relationship. Results are discussed in relation to media theory and practical implications.« less
  6. The ability to map causal interactions underlying genetic control and cellular signaling has led to increasingly accurate models of the complex biochemical networks that regulate cellular function. These network models provide deep insights into the organization, dynamics, and function of biochemical systems: for example, by revealing genetic control pathways involved in disease. However, the traditional representation of biochemical networks as binary interaction graphs fails to accurately represent an important dynamical feature of these multivariate systems: some pathways propagate control signals much more effectively than do others. Such heterogeneity of interactions reflects canalization—the system is robust to dynamical interventions in redundantmore »pathways but responsive to interventions in effective pathways. Here, we introduce the effective graph, a weighted graph that captures the nonlinear logical redundancy present in biochemical network regulation, signaling, and control. Using 78 experimentally validated models derived from systems biology, we demonstrate that 1) redundant pathways are prevalent in biological models of biochemical regulation, 2) the effective graph provides a probabilistic but precise characterization of multivariate dynamics in a causal graph form, and 3) the effective graph provides an accurate explanation of how dynamical perturbation and control signals, such as those induced by cancer drug therapies, propagate in biochemical pathways. Overall, our results indicate that the effective graph provides an enriched description of the structure and dynamics of networked multivariate causal interactions. We demonstrate that it improves explainability, prediction, and control of complex dynamical systems in general and biochemical regulation in particular.« less