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  1. Abstract

    Intrafibrillar mineralization plays a critical role in attaining desired mechanical properties of bone. It is well known that amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) infiltrates into the collagen through the gap regions, but its underlying driving force is not understood. Based on the authors’ previous observations that a collagen fibril has higher piezoelectricity at gap regions, it was hypothesized that the piezoelectric heterogeneity of collagen helps ACP infiltration through the gap. To further examine this hypothesis, the collagen piezoelectricity of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), known as brittle bone disease, is characterized by employing Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM). The OI collagen reveals similar piezoelectricity between gap and overlap regions, implying that losing piezoelectric heterogeneity in OI collagen results in abnormal intrafibrillar mineralization and, accordingly, losing the benefit of mechanical heterogeneity from the fibrillar level. This finding suggests a perspective to explain the ACP infiltration, highlighting the physiological role of collagen piezoelectricity in intrafibrillar mineralization.

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  2. Abstract

    Initially, vanadium dioxide seems to be an ideal first-order phase transition case study due to its deceptively simple structure and composition, but upon closer inspection there are nuances to the driving mechanism of the metal-insulator transition (MIT) that are still unexplained. In this study, a local structure analysis across a bulk powder tungsten-substitution series is utilized to tease out the nuances of this first-order phase transition. A comparison of the average structure to the local structure using synchrotron x-ray diffraction and total scattering pair-distribution function methods, respectively, is discussed as well as comparison to bright field transmission electron microscopy imaging through a similar temperature-series as the local structure characterization. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure fitting of thin film data across the substitution-series is also presented and compared to bulk. Machine learning technique, non-negative matrix factorization, is applied to analyze the total scattering data. The bulk MIT is probed through magnetic susceptibility as well as differential scanning calorimetry. The findings indicate the local transition temperature ($$T_c$$Tc) is less than the average$$T_c$$Tcsupporting the Peierls-Mott MIT mechanism, and demonstrate that in bulk powder and thin-films, increasing tungsten-substitution instigates local V-oxidation through the phase pathway VO$$_2\, \rightarrow$$2V$$_6$$6O$$_{13} \, \rightarrow$$13V$$_2$$2O$$_5$$5.

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  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 25, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  5. Distributed hybrid and electric propulsion systems are one of the most promising technologies to reduce aircraft emissions, resulting in research efforts to investigate new architectures and the design of optimal energy management strategies. This work defines the optimal requirements in terms of battery pack sizing and cell technology for a hybrid-electric regional wing-mounted distributed propulsion aircraft through the application of a design space exploration method. The propulsion system considered in this study is a series-parallel hybrid turboelectric power train with distributed electric fans. A set of six lithium-ion battery cell technologies was identified and experimentally characterized, including both commercially available and prototype cells at different combinations of specific energy and power. A model of the aircraft was developed and used to define the optimal energy management strategy for the hybrid turboelectric propulsion system, which was solved using dynamic programming. The design space exploration was conducted by varying the cell technology and battery storage system size; and the effects on fuel consumption, energy management strategy, and thermal management were compared. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  6. 1
    Autonomous Driving Systems (ADS) are developing rapidly. As vehicle technology advances to SAE level 3 and above (L4, L5), there is a need to maximize and verify safety and operational benefits. As a result, maintenance of these ADS systems is essential which includes scheduled, condition-based, risk-based, and predictive maintenance. A lot of techniques and methods have been developed and are being used in the maintenance of conventional vehicles as well as other industries, but ADS is new technology and several of these maintenance types are still being developed as well as adapted for ADS. In this work, we are presenting a systematic literature review of the “State of the Art” knowledge for the maintenance of a fleet of ADS which includes fault diagnostics, prognostics, predictive maintenance, and preventive maintenance. We are providing statistical inference of different methodologies, comparison between methodologies, and providing our inference of different techniques that are used in other industries for maintenance that can be utilized for ADS. This paper presents a summary, main result, challenges, and opportunities of these approaches and supports new work for the maintenance of ADS.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 11, 2024
  7. Electrification is getting more important in the aviation industry with the increasing need for reducing emissions of carbon dioxide and fuel consumption. It is crucial to assess the behavior of Li-Ion batteries at high-altitude conditions to design safe and reliable battery packs. This paper aims at benchmarking the performance of different formats of battery cells (pouch cells and cylindrical cells) in low-pressure environments. A test setup was designed and fabricated to replicate the standard procedure defined by the RTCA DO-311 standard, such as the altitude test and rapid decompression test. During the test voltage, current, temperature, and pressure were monitored, and the evaluation criteria is based on the capacity retention, along with the structural integrity of the cell. From preliminary tests, it was observed that cylindrical cells do not show a significant change in performance at low-pressure conditions thanks to their steel casing. Failure has been observed in pouch cells due to the absence of a rigid enclosure.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 11, 2024
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2024
  9. Abstract Powder bed fusion (PBF) is an additive manufacturing (AM) process that builds parts in a layer-by-layer fashion out of a bed of metal powder via the selective melting action of a laser or electron beam heat source. Despite its transformational manufacturing capabilities, PBF is currently controlled in the open loop and there is significant demand to apply closed-loop process monitoring and control to the thermal management problem. This paper introduces a controls theoretic analysis of the controllability and observability of temperature states in PBF. The main contributions of the paper are proofs that certain configurations of PBF are classically controllable and observable, but that these configurations are not strongly structurally controllable and observable. These results are complemented by case studies, demonstrating the energy requirement of state estimation under various, industry relevant PBF configurations. These fundamental characterizations of controllability and observability provide a basis for realizing closed-loop PBF temperature estimation. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024
  10. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024