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  1. Demand is expected to accelerate for autonomous air vehicles that transport people and goods, making wind sensors on these vehicles and in the air space where they operate critical to ensure safe control of many simultaneous take-offs and landings. Conventional anemometers such as pitot tubes as well as rotating, heated-element, acoustic, and drag technologies have drawbacks for small and micro-aerial vehicles including high power consumption, high aerodynamic drag, complex signal processing, and high cost. This paper presents an airfoil-shaped anemometer that provides low drag while integrating sensors for measuring wind speed and direction on tethered kites, balloons, and drones. Windmore »speed is measured by an integrated dual-layer capacitive pressure sensor with a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) diaphragm while wind direction is measured by a 3D digital magnetometer that senses the orientation of the airfoil relative to the earth’s magnetic field. A model is presented for a dual-layer capacitive sensor and validated through quasistatic pressure chamber testing. The capacitive sensor as well as a commercial digital magnetometer are integrated into a NACA 2412 profile airfoil and tested in a laboratory-scale wind tunnel. The capacitive sensor provides a sensitivity of 1.84 fF m 2 s −2 and the airfoil exhibits a unique stable angle-of-attack to within ±2° as measured by the magnetometer.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 6, 2023
  2. Abstract Soft robotic grippers can gently grasp and maneuver objects. However, they are difficult to model and control due to their highly deformable fingers and complex integration with robotic systems. This paper investigates the design requirements as well as the grasping capabilities and performance of a soft gripper system based on fluidic prestressed composite (FPC) fingers. An analytical model is constructed as follows: each finger is modeled using the chained composite model (CCM); strain energy and work done by pressure and loads are computed using polynomials with unknown coefficients; net energy is minimized using the Rayleigh–Ritz method to calculate themore »deflected equilibrium shapes of the finger as a function of pressure and loads; and coordinate transformation and gripper geometries are combined to analyze the grasping performance. The effects of prestrain, integration angle, and finger overlap on the grasping performance are examined through a parametric study. We also analyze gripping performance for cuboidal and spherical objects and show how the grasping force can be controlled by varying fluidic pressure. The quasi-static responses of fabricated actuators are measured under pressures and loads. It is shown that the actuators’ modeled responses agree with the experimental results. This work provides a framework for the theoretical analysis of soft robotic grippers and the methods presented can be extended to model grippers with different types of actuation.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 2, 2023
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  6. Abstract Exploiting nonlinear characteristics in micro/nanosystems has been a subject of increasing interest in the last decade. Among others, vigorous intermodal coupling through internal resonance (IR) has drawn much attention because it can suggest new strategies to steer energy within a micro/nanomechanical resonator. However, a challenge in utilizing IR in practical applications is imposing the required frequency commensurability between vibrational modes of a nonlinear micro/nanoresonator. Here, we experimentally and analytically investigate the 1:2 and 2:1 IR in a clamped–clamped beam resonator to provide insights into the detailed mechanism of IR. It is demonstrated that the intermodal coupling between the secondmore »and third flexural modes in an asymmetric structure (e.g., nonprismatic beam) provides an optimal condition to easily implement a strong IR with high energy transfer to the internally resonated mode. In this case, the quadratic coupling between these flexural modes, originating from the stretching effect, is the dominant nonlinear mechanism over other types of geometric nonlinearity. The design strategies proposed in this paper can be integrated into a typical micro/nanoelectromechanical system (M/NEMS) via a simple modification of the geometric parameters of resonators, and thus, we expect this study to stimulate further research and boost paradigm-shifting applications exploring the various benefits of IR in micro/nanosystems.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  8. Magnetic excitations in van der Waals (vdW) materials, especially in the two-dimensional (2D) limit, are an exciting research topic from both the fundamental and applied perspectives. Using temperature-dependent, magneto-Raman spectroscopy, we identify the hybridization of two-magnon excitations with two phonons in manganese phosphorus triselenide (MnPSe 3 ), a magnetic vdW material that hosts in-plane antiferromagnetism. Results from first-principles calculations of the phonon and magnon spectra further support our identification. The Raman spectra’s rich temperature dependence through the magnetic transition displays an avoided crossing behavior in the phonons’ frequency and a concurrent decrease in their lifetimes. We construct a model basedmore »on the interaction between a discrete level and a continuum that reproduces these observations. Our results imply a strong hybridization between each phonon and a two-magnon continuum. This work demonstrates that the magnon-phonon interactions can be observed directly in Raman scattering and provides deep insight into these interactions in 2D magnetic materials.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 29, 2022
  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022
  10. Purpose Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a solid-state joining technology used for three-dimensional printing of metal foilstock. The electrical power input to the ultrasonic welder is a key driver of part quality in UAM, but under the same process parameters, it can vary widely for different build geometries and material combinations because of mechanical compliance in the system. This study aims to model the relationship between UAM weld power and system compliance considering the workpiece (geometry and materials) and the fixture on which the build is fabricated. Design/methodology/approach Linear elastic finite element modeling and experimental modal analysis are used tomore »characterize the system’s mechanical compliance, and linear system dynamics theory is used to understand the relationship between weld power and compliance. In-situ measurements of the weld power are presented for various build stiffnesses to compare model predictions with experiments. Findings Weld power in UAM is found to be largely determined by the mechanical compliance of the build and insensitive to foil material strength. Originality/value This is the first research paper to develop a predictive model relating UAM weld power and the mechanical compliance of the build over a range of foil combinations. This model is used to develop a tool to determine the process settings required to achieve a consistent weld power in builds with different stiffnesses.« less