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  1. This paper presents the fault-tolerant operation for a cascaded H-bridge (CHB) inverter. The added features ensure reliable and robust operation in the event of a fault. The proposed strategy uses an additional cross-coupled CHB (X-CHB) unit in companion with the existing CHB to support the output voltage and ensure continuity of operation in case of an open/short circuit fault. The operation of the proposed X-CHB inverter is described in detail. Simulation and experimental verification of the proposed concept is demonstrated using a seven-level CHB. Both simulation and experimental results validate the fault-tolerant operation of the CHB for a battery energy storage system (BESS) in case of switch faults such as open/short-circuit switch faults or dc-source or battery failure.
  2. Sinusoidal output voltages with low harmonic distortion can be achieved using three-level converters along with LC filters, which have been proven to be suitable for energy storage systems (ESSs). Model predictive control (MPC) has been applied to such energy storage converters due to its simplicity and effectiveness. However, selecting the weighting factor of the additional neutral-point (NP) voltage balancing term in the cost function is time consuming and may also affect the main objective of MPC. To address this issue, in this paper, additional virtual space vectors (VSVs), which do not affect the NP capacitor voltages, are adopted in the proposed MPC. Both simulation and experimental results using controller hardware-in-the-loop are presented to show that NP capacitor voltages can be well controlled using a particularly small NP voltage balancing weighting factor in the cost function. In addition, the total harmonic distortion of the voltage at the point of common coupling is reduced while retaining the fast dynamic response of MPC.
  3. Increased capacity associated with renewable energy sources has created a need for improved methods for controlling power flows from inverter-based generation. This research provides a comparative study of finite-control-set model predictive current control (FCS-MPC-based) with respect to conventional proportional-integral-based (PI-based) synchronous current control for a three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI). The inverter is accompanied by an inductive-capacitive-inductive (LCL) filter to attenuate pulse width modulation (PWM) switching harmonics. However, an LCL filter introduces a resonance near to the control stability boundary, giving rise to substantial complexity from a control perspective. In order to avoid potential instability caused by the resonance, active damping can be included in the PI-based current control. Though properly designed active damping can improve inverter stability, in practice the robustness of standard PI control is not attainable due to variability in the grid inductance at the point of common coupling (PCC). This is due to impedance variations causing large shifts in the LCL resonance frequency. Weak grid conditions (i.e., a low short-circuit ratio) and a correspondingly high line impedance are particularly susceptible to LCL induced resonance instabilities. As an approach to operate with grid impedance variations and weak grid conditions, FCS-MPC has the potential to produce superior performancemore »compared to PI-based current control methods. This comparative study indicates that FCS-MPC has improved resonance damping and fast dynamic capability in a system with renewable energy sources under weak grid conditions. Detailed results from MATLAB/SimPower are presented to validate the suggested FCS-MPC method where it is robust to uncertainty in the grid impedance variations. Overall results indicate an improvement over conventional PI-based current control methods.« less
  4. Inherent current imbalances are often present in electric distribution systems due to the increase of singlephase generation in the form of renewables and the existence of single-phase loads. The continued expansion of non-linear load usage is also increasing the levels of harmonics through the power transformers servicing these distribution systems. The issues that arise from these operating conditions are widely known and standard solutions used by utilities are as well. However, they are often bulky and do not provide a level of control or versatility appropriate for these challenges. This paper gives an overview of many of the problems that are faced on distribution systems and how an active shunt compensator may be used to mitigate or eliminate them.
  5. This paper presents the study and evaluation of a medium-voltage grid-tied cascaded H-bridge (CHB) three-phase inverter for battery energy storage systems using SiC devices as an enabling technology. The high breakdown voltage capability of SiC devices provide the advantage to significantly minimize the complexity of the CHB multilevel converter, with less power loss compared to when Silicon (Si) devices are used. The topology in this study has been selected based on high voltage SiC devices. In order to reach 13.8 kV, a nine-level CHB is needed when using 6.5 kV SiC MOSFETs. However, if 10 kV SiC MOSFETs are used, only five-levels of the CHB are required. The controls were developed, simulated and verified through an experimental prototype. The results from the scaled-down prototype proved the controls and the verification of the performance of five-level CHB three-phase inverter. For the system reliability, both open-loop and short-circuit faults are analyzed.
  6. Microgrid are gaining popularity due to several advantages like potential for fuel savings and resiliency in case of grid catastrophic failures. In a microgrid, many energy sources like wind and solar farms are connected to the grid through inverters with different power ratings and LCL filter parameters. The inverters incorporated in these systems might have a different frequency response and stability ranges than those inverters with identical LCL filter values. This paper establishes the model and analyzes the stability of a system with multiple paralleled- and grid-connected inverters with different LCL filter paramenters using the grid-side currents as feedback signals. The analysis results showed that a method similar to the interactive and common current analysis technique used on inverters with identical LCL filters can be implemented on a system with different LCL filers to calculate the maximum values of the inverters’ current controller gains without having to derive the complicated equations of the MIMO system.
  7. The concept of Energy Hub has been proposed to facilitate the synergies among different forms of energy carriers. Under the new electricity market environment, it is of great significance to build a win-win situation for prosumers and Hub manager (HM) at the level of community without bringing extra burden to the utility grid. This paper proposes a cooperative trading mode for a community-level energy system (CES), which consists of Energy Hub (EH) and PV prosumers with the automatic demand response (DR) capability. In the cooperative trading framework, a real-time rolling horizon energy management model is proposed based on cooperative game theory considering the stochastic characteristics of PV prosumers and the conditional value at risk (CVaR). The validity of the proposed model is analyzed through the optimality proof of the grand coalition. A contribution-based profit distribution scheme and its stability proof are also provided. Moreover, in order to solve the optimization model, it is further transformed into a more easily resolved mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model by adding auxiliary variables. Finally, via a practical example, the effectiveness of the model is verified in terms of promoting local consumption of PV energy, increasing HM's profits, and reducing prosumers' costs, etc.