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  1. Abstract

    Two distinct features of anthropogenic climate change, warming in the tropical upper troposphere and warming at the Arctic surface, have competing effects on the midlatitude jet stream’s latitudinal position, often referred to as a “tug-of-war.” Studies that investigate the jet’s response to these thermal forcings show that it is sensitive to model type, season, initial atmospheric conditions, and the shape and magnitude of the forcing. Much of this past work focuses on studying a simulation’s response to external manipulation. In contrast, we explore the potential to train a convolutional neural network (CNN) on internal variability alone and then use it to examine possible nonlinear responses of the jet to tropospheric thermal forcing that more closely resemble anthropogenic climate change. Our approach leverages the idea behind the fluctuation–dissipation theorem, which relates the internal variability of a system to its forced response but so far has been only used to quantify linear responses. We train a CNN on data from a long control run of the CESM dry dynamical core and show that it is able to skillfully predict the nonlinear response of the jet to sustained external forcing. The trained CNN provides a quick method for exploring the jet stream sensitivity to a wide range of tropospheric temperature tendencies and, considering that this method can likely be applied to any model with a long control run, could be useful for early-stage experiment design.

     
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  2. Abstract

    Predictable internal climate variability on decadal timescales (2–10 years) is associated with large‐scale oceanic processes, however these predictable signals may be masked by the noisy climate system. One approach to overcoming this problem is investigating state‐dependent predictability—how differences in prediction skill depend on the initial state of the system. We present a machine learning approach to identify state‐dependent predictability on decadal timescales in the Community Earth System Model version 2 pre‐industrial control simulation by incorporating uncertainty estimates into a regression neural network. We leverage the network's prediction of uncertainty to examine state dependent predictability in sea surface temperatures by focusing on predictions with the lowest uncertainty outputs. In particular, we study two regions of the global ocean—the North Atlantic and North Pacific—and find that skillful initial states identified by the neural network correspond to particular phases of Atlantic multi‐decadal variability and the interdecadal Pacific oscillation.

     
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  3. Abstract

    Predicting Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) transitions and understanding the associated mechanisms has proven a critical but challenging task in climate science. As a form of decadal variability, the PDO is associated with both large‐scale climate shifts and regional climate predictability. We show that artificial neural networks (ANNs) predict PDO persistence and transitions with lead times of 12 months onward. Using layer‐wise relevance propagation to investigate the ANN predictions, we demonstrate that the ANNs utilize oceanic patterns that have been previously linked to predictable PDO behavior. For PDO transitions, ANNs recognize a build‐up of ocean heat content in the off‐equatorial western Pacific 12–27 months before a transition occurs. The results support the continued use of ANNs in climate studies where explainability tools can assist in mechanistic understanding of the climate system.

     
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  4. Abstract

    We show that explainable neural networks can identify regions of oceanic variability that contribute predictability on decadal timescales in a fully coupled Earth‐system model. The neural networks learn to use sea‐surface temperature anomalies to predict future continental surface temperature anomalies. We then use a neural‐network explainability method called layerwise relevance propagation to infer which oceanic patterns lead to accurate predictions made by the neural networks. In particular, regions within the North Atlantic Ocean and North Pacific Ocean lend the most predictability for surface temperature across continental North America. We apply the proposed methodology to decadal variability, although the concept is generalizable to other timescales of predictability. Furthermore, while our approach focuses on predictable patterns of internal variability within climate models, it should be generalizable to observational data as well. Our study contributes to the growing evidence that explainable neural networks are important tools for advancing geoscientific knowledge.

     
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  5. Abstract

    While the Madden‐Julian oscillation (MJO) is known to influence the midlatitude circulation and its predictability on subseasonal‐to‐seasonal timescales, little is known how this connection may change with anthropogenic warming. This study investigates changes in the causal pathways between the MJO and the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) within historical and SSP585 simulations of the Community Earth System Model 2‐Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (CESM2‐WACCM) coupled climate model. Two data‐driven approaches are employed, namely, the STRIPES index and graphical causal models. These approaches collectively indicate that the MJO's influence on the North Atlantic strengthens in the future, consistent with an extended jet‐stream. In addition, the graphical causal models allow us to distinguish the causal pathways associated with the teleconnections. While both a stratospheric and tropospheric pathway connect the MJO to the North Atlantic in CESM2‐WACCM, the strengthening of the MJO‐NAO causal connection over the 21st century is shown to be due exclusively to teleconnections via the tropospheric pathway.

     
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  6. Abstract

    Neural networks have become increasingly prevalent within the geosciences, although a common limitation of their usage has been a lack of methods to interpret what the networks learn and how they make decisions. As such, neural networks have often been used within the geosciences to most accurately identify a desired output given a set of inputs, with the interpretation of what the network learns used as a secondary metric to ensure the network is making the right decision for the right reason. Neural network interpretation techniques have become more advanced in recent years, however, and we therefore propose that the ultimate objective of using a neural network can also be the interpretation of what the network has learned rather than the output itself. We show that the interpretation of neural networks can enable the discovery of scientifically meaningful connections within geoscientific data. In particular, we use two methods for neural network interpretation called backward optimization and layerwise relevance propagation, both of which project the decision pathways of a network back onto the original input dimensions. To the best of our knowledge, LRP has not yet been applied to geoscientific research, and we believe it has great potential in this area. We show how these interpretation techniques can be used to reliably infer scientifically meaningful information from neural networks by applying them to common climate patterns. These results suggest that combining interpretable neural networks with novel scientific hypotheses will open the door to many new avenues in neural network‐related geoscience research.

     
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  7. ABSTRACT

    Arctic–midlatitude teleconnections are complex and multifaceted. By design, targeted modeling studies typically focus only on one direction of influence—usually, the midlatitude atmospheric response to a changing Arctic. The two-way, coupled feedbacks between the Arctic and the midlatitude circulation on submonthly time scales are explored using a regularized regression model formulated around Granger causality. The regularized regression model indicates that there are regions in which Arctic temperature drives a midlatitude circulation response, and regions in which the midlatitude circulation drives a response in the Arctic; however, these regions rarely overlap. In many regions, on submonthly time scales, the midlatitude circulation drives Arctic temperature variability, highlighting the important role the midlatitude circulation can play in impacting the Arctic. In particular, the regularized regression model results support recent work that indicates that the observed high pressure anomalies over Eurasia drive a significant response in the Arctic on submonthly time scales, rather than being driven by the Arctic.

     
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  8. Abstract

    Many problems in climate science require the identification of signals obscured by both the “noise” of internal climate variability and differences across models. Following previous work, we train an artificial neural network (ANN) to predict the year of a given map of annual‐mean temperature (or precipitation) from forced climate model simulations. This prediction task requires the ANN to learn forced patterns of change amidst a background of climate noise and model differences. We then apply a neural network visualization technique (layerwise relevance propagation) to visualize the spatial patterns that lead the ANN to successfully predict the year. These spatial patterns thus serve as “reliable indicators” of the forced change. The architecture of the ANN is chosen such that these indicators vary in time, thus capturing the evolving nature of regional signals of change. Results are compared to those of more standard approaches like signal‐to‐noise ratios and multilinear regression in order to gain intuition about the reliable indicators identified by the ANN. We then apply an additional visualization tool (backward optimization) to highlight where disagreements in simulated and observed patterns of change are most important for the prediction of the year. This work demonstrates that ANNs and their visualization tools make a powerful pair for extracting climate patterns of forced change.

     
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  9. Abstract. Teleconnections from the Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO) are a key source of predictability of weather on the extended timescale of about 10–40 d. The MJO teleconnection is sensitive to a number of factors, including the mean dry static stability, the mean flow, and the propagation and intensity characteristics of the MJO, which are traditionally difficult to separate across models. Each of these factors may evolve in response to increasing greenhouse gas emissions, which will impact MJO teleconnections and potentially impact predictability on extended timescales. Current state-of-the-art climate models do not agree on how MJO teleconnections over central and eastern North America will change in a future climate. Here, we use results from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) historical and SSP585 experiments in concert with a linear baroclinic model (LBM) to separate and investigate alternate mechanisms explaining why and how boreal winter (January) MJO teleconnections over the North Pacific and North America may change in a future climate and to identify key sources of inter-model uncertainty. LBM simulations suggest that a weakening teleconnection due to increases in tropical dry static stability alone is robust across CMIP6 models and that uncertainty in mean state winds is a key driver of uncertainty in future MJO teleconnections. Uncertainty in future changes to the MJO's intensity, eastward propagation speed, zonal wavenumber, and eastward propagation extent are other important sources of uncertainty in future MJO teleconnections. We find no systematic relationship between future changes in the Rossby wave source and the MJO teleconnection or between changes to the zonal wind or stationary Rossby wave number and the MJO teleconnection over the North Pacific and North America. LBM simulations suggest a reduction of the boreal winter MJO teleconnection over the North Pacific and an uncertain change over North America, with large spread over both regions that lends to weak confidence in the overall outlook. While quantitatively determining the relative importance of MJO versus mean state uncertainties in determining future teleconnections remains a challenge, the LBM simulations suggest that uncertainty in the mean state winds is a larger contributor to the uncertainty in future projections of the MJO teleconnection than the MJO. 
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