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    We present radio observations of the symbiotic recurrent nova V3890 Sagitarii following the 2019 August eruption obtained with the MeerKAT radio telescope at 1.28 GHz and Karl G. Janksy Very Large Array (VLA) at 1.26−35 GHz. The radio light curves span from day 1 to 540 days after eruption and are dominated by synchrotron emission produced by the expanding nova ejecta interacting with the dense wind from an evolved companion in the binary system. The radio emission is detected early on (day 6) and increases rapidly to a peak on day 15. The radio luminosity increases due to a decrease in the opacity of the circumstellar material in front of the shocked material and fades as the density of the surrounding medium decreases and the velocity of the shock decelerates. Modelling the light curve provides an estimated mass-loss rate of ${\overset{\hbox{$\bullet $}}{M}}_{\textrm {wind}} \approx 10^{-8}\, {\textrm {M}}_\odot ~{\textrm {yr}}^{-1}$ from the red giant star and ejecta mass in the range of Mej = 10−5––10−6 M⊙ from the surface of the white dwarf. V3890 Sgr likely hosts a massive white dwarf similar to other symbiotic recurrent novae, thus considered a candidate for supernovae type Ia (SNe Ia) progenitor. However, its radio flux densities compared to upper limits for SNe Ia have ruled it out as a progenitor for SN 2011fe like supernovae.

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    We present early spectral observations of the very slow Galactic nova Gaia22alz, over its gradual rise to peak brightness that lasted 180 d. During the first 50 d, when the nova was only 3–4 mag above its normal brightness, the spectra showed narrow (FWHM ≈ 400 km s−1) emission lines of H Balmer, He i, He ii, and C iv but no P Cygni absorption. A few weeks later, the high-excitation He ii and C iv lines disappeared, and P Cygni profiles of Balmer, He i, and eventually Fe ii lines emerged, yielding a spectrum typical of classical novae before peak. We propose that the early (first 50 d) spectra of Gaia22alz, particularly the emission lines with no P Cygni profiles, are produced in the white dwarf’s optically thin envelope or accretion disc, reprocessing ultraviolet and potentially X-ray emission from the white dwarf after a dramatic increase in the rate of thermonuclear reactions, during a phase known as the ‘early X-ray/UV flash’. If true, this would be one of the rare times that the optical signature of the early X-ray/UV flash has been detected. While this phase might last only a few hours in other novae and thus be easily missed, it was possible to detect in Gaia22alz due to its very slow and gradual rise and thanks to the efficiency of new all-sky surveys in detecting transients on their rise. We also consider alternative scenarios that could explain the early spectral features of Gaia22alz and its gradual rise.

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  3. Abstract

    In 2021 August, the Fermi Large Area Telescope, H.E.S.S., and MAGIC detected GeV and TeVγ-ray emission from an outburst of recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi. This detection represents the first very high-energyγ-rays observed from a nova, and it opens a new window to study particle acceleration. Both H.E.S.S. and MAGIC described the observedγ-rays as arising from a single, external shock. In this paper, we perform detailed, multi-zone modeling of RS Ophiuchi’s 2021 outburst, including a self-consistent prescription for particle acceleration and magnetic field amplification. We demonstrate that, contrary to previous work, a single shock cannot simultaneously explain RS Ophiuchi’s GeV and TeV emission, in particular the spectral shape and distinct light-curve peaks. Instead, we put forward a model involving multiple shocks that reproduces the observedγ-ray spectrum and temporal evolution. The simultaneous appearance of multiple distinct velocity components in the nova optical spectrum over the first several days of the outburst supports the presence of distinct shocks, which may arise either from the strong latitudinal dependence of the density of the external circumbinary medium (e.g., in the binary equatorial plane versus the poles) or due to internal collisions within the white dwarf ejecta (which power theγ-ray emission in classical novae).

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    Classical novae are shock-powered multiwavelength transients triggered by a thermonuclear runaway on an accreting white dwarf. V1674 Her is the fastest nova ever recorded (time to declined by two magnitudes is t2 = 1.1 d) that challenges our understanding of shock formation in novae. We investigate the physical mechanisms behind nova emission from GeV γ-rays to cm-band radio using coordinated Fermi-LAT, NuSTAR, Swift, and VLA observations supported by optical photometry. Fermi-LAT detected short-lived (18 h) 0.1–100 GeV emission from V1674 Her that appeared 6 h after the eruption began; this was at a level of (1.6 ± 0.4) × 10−6 photons cm−2 s−1. Eleven days later, simultaneous NuSTAR and Swift X-ray observations revealed optically thin thermal plasma shock-heated to kTshock = 4 keV. The lack of a detectable 6.7 keV Fe Kα emission suggests super-solar CNO abundances. The radio emission from V1674 Her was consistent with thermal emission at early times and synchrotron at late times. The radio spectrum steeply rising with frequency may be a result of either free-free absorption of synchrotron and thermal emission by unshocked outer regions of the nova shell or the Razin–Tsytovich effect attenuating synchrotron emission in dense plasma. The development of the shock inside the ejecta is unaffected by the extraordinarily rapid evolution and the intermediate polar host of this nova.

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  5. Abstract

    We present the first estimate of the Galactic nova rate based on optical transient surveys covering the entire sky. Using data from the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) and Gaia—the only two all-sky surveys to report classical nova candidates—we find 39 confirmed Galactic novae and 7 additional unconfirmed candidates discovered from 2019 to 2021, yielding a nova discovery rate of ≈14 yr−1. Using accurate Galactic stellar mass models and three-dimensional dust maps and incorporating realistic nova light curves, we have built a sophisticated Galactic nova model to estimate the fraction of Galactic novae discovered by these surveys over this time period. The observing capabilities of each survey are distinct: the high cadence of ASAS-SN makes it sensitive to fast novae, while the broad observing filter and high spatial resolution of Gaia make it more sensitive to highly reddened novae across the entire Galactic plane and bulge. Despite these differences, we find that ASAS-SN and Gaia give consistent Galactic nova rates, with a final joint nova rate of 26 ± 5 yr−1. This inferred nova rate is substantially lower than found by many other recent studies. Critically assessing the systematic uncertainties in the Galactic nova rate, we argue that the role of faint, fast-fading novae has likely been overestimated, but that subtle details in the operation of transient alert pipelines can have large, sometimes unappreciated effects on transient recovery efficiency. Our predicted nova rate can be directly tested with forthcoming red/near-infrared transient surveys in the southern hemisphere.

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    We present 3D hydrodynamic models of the interaction between the outflows of evolved, pulsating, Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars and nearby (<3 stellar radii) substellar companions (Mcomp ≲ 40 MJ). Our models show that due to resonances between the orbital period of the companion and the pulsation period of the AGB star, multiple spiral structures can form; the shocks driven by the pulsations are enhanced periodically in different regions as they encounter the denser material created by the substellar companion’s wake. We discuss the properties of these spiral structures and the effect of the companion parameters on them. We also demonstrate that the gravitational potential of the nearby companion enhances the mass-loss from the AGB star. For more massive (Mcomp > 40 MJ) and more distant companions (>4 stellar radii), a single spiral arm forms. We discuss the possibility of observing these structures with the new generations of high-resolution, high-sensitivity instruments, and using them to ‘find’ substellar companions around bright, evolved stars. Our results also highlight possible structures that could form in our Solar system when the Sun turns into an AGB star.

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  7. Abstract

    Observations of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) reveal a wealth of information about the dynamics of the supernova ejecta and its composition but very little direct information about the progenitor. Constraining properties of the progenitor and the explosion requires coupling the observations with a theoretical model of the explosion. Here we begin with the CCSN simulations of Couch et al., which use a nonparametric treatment of the neutrino transport while also accounting for turbulence and convection. In this work we use the SuperNova Explosion Code to evolve the CCSN hydrodynamics to later times and compute bolometric light curves. Focusing on Type IIP SNe (SNe IIP), we then (1) directly compare the theoretical STIR explosions to observations and (2) assess how properties of the progenitor’s core can be estimated from optical photometry in the plateau phase alone. First, the distribution of plateau luminosities (L50) and ejecta velocities achieved by our simulations is similar to the observed distributions. Second, we fit our models to the light curves and velocity evolution of some well-observed SNe. Third, we recover well-known correlations, as well as the difficulty of connecting any one SN property to zero-age main-sequence mass. Finally, we show that there is a usable, linear correlation between iron core mass andL50such that optical photometry alone of SNe IIP can give us insights into the cores of massive stars. Illustrating this by application to a few SNe, we find iron core masses of 1.3–1.5Mwith typical errors of 0.05M. Data are publicly available online on Zenodo: doi:10.5281/zenodo.6631964.

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    The discovery that many classical novae produce detectable GeV γ-ray emission has raised the question of the role of shocks in nova eruptions. Here, we use radio observations of nova V809 Cep (nova Cep 2013) with the Jansky Very Large Array to show that it produced non-thermal emission indicative of particle acceleration in strong shocks for more than a month starting about 6 weeks into the eruption, quasi-simultaneous with the production of dust. Broadly speaking, the radio emission at late times – more than 6 months or so into the eruption – is consistent with thermal emission from $10^{-4}\, {\rm M}_\odot$ of freely expanding, 104 K ejecta. At 4.6 and 7.4 GHz, however, the radio light curves display an initial early-time peak 76 d after the discovery of the eruption in the optical (t0). The brightness temperature at 4.6 GHz on day 76 was greater than 105 K, an order of magnitude above what is expected for thermal emission. We argue that the brightness temperature is the result of synchrotron emission due to internal shocks within the ejecta. The evolution of the radio spectrum was consistent with synchrotron emission that peaked at high frequencies before low frequencies, suggesting that the synchrotron from the shock was initially subject to free–free absorption by optically thick ionized material in front of the shock. Dust formation began around day 37, and we suggest that internal shocks in the ejecta were established prior to dust formation and caused the nucleation of dust.

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  9. Abstract

    We report the discovery of 1RXH J082623.6−505741, a 10.4 hr orbital period compact binary. Modeling extensive optical photometry and spectroscopy reveals a ∼0.4MK-type secondary transferring mass through a low-state accretion disk to a nonmagnetic ∼0.8Mwhite dwarf. The secondary is overluminous for its mass and dominates the optical spectra at all epochs and must be evolved to fill its Roche Lobe at this orbital period. The X-ray luminosityLX∼ 1–2 × 1032erg s−1derived from both new XMM-Newton and archival observations, although high compared to most CVs, still only requires a modest accretion rate onto the white dwarf ofṀ∼ 3 × 10−11to 3 × 10−10Myr−1, lower than expected for a cataclysmic variable with an evolved secondary. No dwarf nova outbursts have yet been observed from the system, consistent with the low derived mass-transfer rate. Several other cataclysmic variables with similar orbital periods also show unexpectedly low mass-transfer rates, even though selection effects disfavor the discovery of binaries with these properties. This suggests the abundance and evolutionary state of long-period, low mass-transfer rate cataclysmic variables are worthy of additional attention.

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    We present Hubble Space Telescope optical images, Keck-OSIRIS near-infrared (NIR) integral field spectroscopy data cubes and Keck-Near InfraRed Camera-2 (NIRC2) NIR images of nova V5668 Sgr from 2016 to 2019. The observations indicate enhanced emission at the polar caps and equatorial torus for low-ionization lines, and enhanced high-ionization emission lines only at the polar caps. The radial velocities are compatible with a homogeneous expansion velocity of v = 590 km s−1 and a system inclination angle of 24°. These values were used to estimate an expansion parallax distance of 1200 ± 400 pc. The NIRC2 data indicate the presence of dust in 2016 and 2017, but no dust emission could be detected in 2019. The observational data were used for assembling 3D photoionization models of the ejecta. The model results indicate that the central source has a temperature of 1.88 × 105 K and a luminosity of 1.6 × 1035 erg s−1 in August of 2017 (2.4 yr post eruption), and that the shell has a mass of 6.3 × 10−5 M⊙. The models also suggest anisotropy of the ionizing flux, possibly by the contribution from a luminous accretion disc.

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