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  1. Abstract

    Much theory has focused on how a population’s selfing rate affects the ability of natural selection to remove deleterious mutations from a population. However, most such theory has focused on mutations of a given dominance and fitness effect in isolation. It remains unclear how selfing affects the purging of deleterious mutations in a genome-wide context where mutations with different selection and dominance coefficients co-segregate. Here, we use individual-based forward simulations and analytical models to investigate how mutation, selection and recombination interact with selfing rate to shape genome-wide patterns of mutation accumulation and fitness. In addition to recovering previously described results for how selfing affects the efficacy of selection against mutations of a given dominance class, we find that the interaction of purifying selection against mutations of different dominance classes changes with selfing and recombination rates. In particular, when recombination is low and recessive deleterious mutations are common, outcrossing populations transition from purifying selection to pseudo-overdominance, dramatically reducing the efficacy of selection. At these parameter combinations, the efficacy of selection remains low until populations hit a threshold selfing rate, above which it increases. In contrast, selection is more effective in outcrossing than (partial) selfing populations when recombination rates are moderate to high and recessive deleterious mutations are rare.

     
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  2. Summary

    Self‐incompatibility alleles (S‐alleles), which prevent self‐fertilisation in plants, have historically been expected to benefit from negative frequency‐dependent selection and invade when introduced to a new population through gene flow. However, the most taxonomically widespread form of self‐incompatibility, the ribonuclease‐based system ancestral to the core eudicots, functions through collaborative non‐self recognition, which can affect both short‐term patterns of gene flow and the long‐term process of S‐allele diversification.

    We analysed a model of S‐allele evolution in two populations connected by migration, focussing on comparisons among the fates of S‐alleles initially unique to each population and those shared among populations.

    We found that both shared and unique S‐alleles from the population with more unique S‐alleles were usually fitter compared with S‐alleles from the population with fewer S‐alleles. Resident S‐alleles often became extinct and were replaced by migrant S‐alleles, although this outcome could be averted by pollen limitation or biased migration.

    Collaborative non‐self recognition will usually either result in the whole‐sale replacement of S‐alleles from one population with those from another or else disfavour introgression of S‐alleles altogether.

     
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  3. Abstract Premise Pollen movement is a crucial component of dispersal in seed plants. Although pollen dispersal is well studied, methodological constraints have made it challenging to directly track pollen flow within multiple populations across landscapes. We labeled pollen with quantum dots, a new technique that overcomes past limitations, to evaluate the spatial scale of pollen dispersal and its relationship with conspecific density within 11 populations of Clarkia xantiana subsp. xantiana , a bee‐pollinated annual plant. Methods We used experimental arrays in two years to track pollen movement across distances of 5–35 m within nine populations and across distances of 10–70 m within two additional populations. We tested for distance decay of pollen dispersal, whether conspecific density modulated dispersal distance, and whether dispersal kernels varied among populations across an environmentally complex landscape. Results Labeled pollen receipt did not decline with distance over 35 m within eight of nine populations or over 70 m within either of two populations. Pollen receipt increased with conspecific density. Overall, dispersal kernels were consistent across populations. Conclusions The surprising uniformity in dispersal distance within different populations was likely influenced by low precipitation and plant density in our study years. This suggests that spatiotemporal variation in the abiotic environment substantially influences the extent of gene flow within and among populations. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  4. In the past decade, advances in genome sequencing have allowed researchers to uncover the history of hybridization in diverse groups of species, including our own. Although the field has made impressive progress in documenting the extent of natural hybridization, both historical and recent, there are still many unanswered questions about its genetic and evolutionary consequences. Recent work has suggested that the outcomes of hybridization in the genome may be in part predictable, but many open questions about the nature of selection on hybrids and the biological variables that shape such selection have hampered progress in this area. We synthesize what is known about the mechanisms that drive changes in ancestry in the genome after hybridization, highlight major unresolved questions, and discuss their implications for the predictability of genome evolution after hybridization. 
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  5. null (Ed.)