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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 6, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 25, 2023
  3. Due to the globalization of semiconductor manufacturing and test processes, the system-on-a-chip (SoC) designers no longer design the complete SoC and manufacture chips on their own. This outsourcing of the design and manufacturing of Integrated Circuits (ICs) has resulted in several threats, such as overproduction of ICs, sale of out-of-specification/rejected ICs, and piracy of Intellectual Properties (IPs). Logic locking has emerged as a promising defense strategy against these threats. However, various attacks about the extraction of secret keys have undermined the security of logic locking techniques. Over the years, researchers have proposed different techniques to prevent existing attacks. In this article, we propose a novel attack that can break any logic locking techniques that rely on the stored secret key. This proposed TAAL attack is based on implanting a hardware Trojan in the netlist, which leaks the secret key to an adversary once activated. As an untrusted foundry can extract the netlist of a design from the layout/mask information, it is feasible to implement such a hardware Trojan. All three proposed types of TAAL attacks can be used for extracting secret keys. We have introduced the models for both the combinational and sequential hardware Trojans that evade manufacturing tests. Anmore »adversary only needs to choose one hardware Trojan out of a large set of all possible Trojans to launch the TAAL attack.« less
  4. Logic Locking is a well-accepted protection technique to enable trust in the outsourced design and fabrication processes of integrated circuits (ICs) where the original design is modified by incorporating additional key gates in the netlist, resulting in a key-dependent functional circuit. The original functionality of the chip is recovered once it is programmed with the secret key, otherwise, it produces incorrect results for some input patterns. Over the past decade, different attacks have been proposed to break logic locking, simultaneously motivating researchers to develop more secure countermeasures. In this paper, we propose a novel stuck-at fault-based differential fault analysis (DFA) attack, which can be used to break logic locking that relies on a stored secret key. This proposed attack is based on self-referencing, where the secret key is determined by injecting faults in the key lines and comparing the response with its fault-free counterpart. A commercial ATPG tool can be used to generate test patterns that detect these faults, which will be used in DFA to determine the secret key. One test pattern is sufficient to determine one key bit, which results in at most |K| test patterns to determine the entire secret key of size |K|. The proposed attackmore »is generic and can be extended to break any logic locked circuits.« less