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Abstract. To examine relations between achievement goal orientation—a construct of motivation, metacognition and learning, multiple data channels were collected from 58 students while problem solving in a game-based learning environment. Results suggest students with different goal orientations use metacognitive processes differently but found no differences in learning. Findings have implications for measuring motivation using multiple data channels to design adaptive game-based learning environments.
Abstract. Game-based learning environments (GBLEs) are being increasingly utilized in education and training to enhance and encourage engagement and learning. This study investigated how students, who were afforded varying levels of autonomy, interacted with two types of informational text presentations (e.g., non-player character (NPC) instances, traditional informational text) while problem solving with CRYSTAL ISLAND (CI), a GBLE, and their effect on overall learning by examining eye-tracking and performance data. Ninety undergraduate students were randomly assigned to two conditions, full and partial agency, which varied in the amount of autonomy students were granted to explore CI and interactive game elements (i.e., reading informational text, scanning food items). Within CI, informational text is presented in a traditional format, where there are large chunks of text presented at a single time represented as books and research articles, as well as in the form of participant conversation with NPCs throughout the environment. Results indicated significantly greater proportional learning gain (PLG) for participants in the partial agency condition than in the full agency condition. Additionally, longer participant fixations on traditionally presented informational text positively predicted participant PLG. Fixation durations were significantly longer in the partial agency condition than the full agency condition. However, the combinationmore »
Examining Gaze Behaviors and Metacognitive Judgments of Informational Text Within Game-Based Learning EnvironmentsAbstract. Game-based learning environments (GBLEs) are often criticized for not offering adequate support for students when learning and problem solving within these environments. A key aspect of GBLEs is the verbal representation of information such as text. This study examined learners’ metacognitive judgments of informational text (e.g., books and articles) through eye gaze behaviors within CRYSTAL ISLAND (CI). Ninety-one undergraduate students interacted with game elements during problem-solving in CI, a GBLE focused on facilitating the development of self-regulated learning (SRL) skills and domain-specific knowledge in microbiology. The results suggest engaging with informational text along with other goal-directed actions (actions needed to achieve the end goal) are large components of time spent within CI. Our findings revealed goal-directed actions, specifically reading informational texts, were significant predictors of participants’ proportional learning gains (PLGs) after problem solving with CI. Additionally, we found significant differences in PLGs where participants who spent a greater time fixating and reengaging with goal- relevant text within the environment demonstrated greater proportional learning after problem solving in CI.