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- International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Capturing Sequences of Learners' Self-Regulatory Interactions With Instructional Material During Game-Based Learning Using Auto-Recurrence Quantification AnalysisUndergraduate students ( N = 82) learned about microbiology with Crystal Island, a game-based learning environment (GBLE), which required participants to interact with instructional materials (i.e., books and research articles, non-player character [NPC] dialogue, posters) spread throughout the game. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: full agency , where they had complete control over their actions, and partial agency , where they were required to complete an ordered play-through of Crystal Island. As participants learned with Crystal Island, log-file and eye-tracking time series data were collected to pinpoint instances when participants interacted with instructional materials. Hierarchical linear growth models indicated relationships between eye gaze dwell time and (1) the type of representation a learner gathered information from (i.e., large sections of text, poster, or dialogue); (2) the ability of the learner to distinguish relevant from irrelevant information; (3) learning gains; and (4) agency. Auto-recurrence quantification analysis (aRQA) revealed the degree to which repetitive sequences of interactions with instructional material were random or predictable. Through hierarchical modeling, analyses suggested that greater dwell times and learning gains were associated with more predictable sequences of interaction with instructional materials. Results from hierarchical clustering found that participants with restricted agency andmore »
Examining Gaze Behaviors and Metacognitive Judgments of Informational Text Within Game-Based Learning EnvironmentsAbstract. Game-based learning environments (GBLEs) are often criticized for not offering adequate support for students when learning and problem solving within these environments. A key aspect of GBLEs is the verbal representation of information such as text. This study examined learners’ metacognitive judgments of informational text (e.g., books and articles) through eye gaze behaviors within CRYSTAL ISLAND (CI). Ninety-one undergraduate students interacted with game elements during problem-solving in CI, a GBLE focused on facilitating the development of self-regulated learning (SRL) skills and domain-specific knowledge in microbiology. The results suggest engaging with informational text along with other goal-directed actions (actions needed to achieve the end goal) are large components of time spent within CI. Our findings revealed goal-directed actions, specifically reading informational texts, were significant predictors of participants’ proportional learning gains (PLGs) after problem solving with CI. Additionally, we found significant differences in PLGs where participants who spent a greater time fixating and reengaging with goal- relevant text within the environment demonstrated greater proportional learning after problem solving in CI.
The purpose of the current study was to analyze the impact of delayed monitoring judgments on both monitoring accuracy and science knowledge in a game-based learning environment called MISSING MONTY. Fifth-grade students from public schools in the USA were randomly assigned to either an immediate monitoring (IM) (n = 142) condition or to a delayed monitoring (DM) condition (n = 171). All students completed a pre and posttest of science knowledge and made item-level confidence judgments on each test. The students then played MISSING MONTY for approximately 2-5 weeks depending upon class schedule. During gameplay students visited various animal researchers, read informational texts, and completed knowledge and monitoring challenges. In the IM condition, students rated their confidence on a 100-point scale immediately following each item. In the DM condition, the students first completed the knowledge challenge and then provided monitoring judgments following the completion of all items. Results showed significant improvements for science knowledge and monitoring accuracy for both groups, however no significant differences were found between the two conditions Thus, MISSING MONTY appeared to have positive effects on both resultant science knowledge and monitoring accuracy regardless of when monitoring was assessed. Implications for the design of learning environments andmore »
In this experiment, we investigated how a robot’s violation of several social norms influences human engagement with and perception of that robot. Each participant in our study (n = 80) played 30 rounds of rock-paper-scissors with a robot. In the three experimental conditions, the robot violated a social norm by cheating, cursing, or insulting the participant during gameplay. In the control condition, the robot conducted a non-norm violating behavior by stretching its hand. During the game, we found that participants had strong emotional reactions to all three social norm violations. However, participants spoke more words to the robot only after it cheated. After the game, participants were more likely to describe the robot as an agent only if they were in the cheating condition. These results imply that while social norm violations do elicit strong immediate reactions, only cheating elicits a significantly stronger prolonged perception of agency.
Past research has shown that when people are curious they are willing to wait to get an answer if the alternative is to not get the answer at all—a result that has been taken to mean that people valued the answers, and interpreted as supporting a reinforcement-learning (RL) view of curiosity. An alternative 'need for agency' view is forwarded that proposes that when curious, people are intrinsically motivated to actively seek the answer themselves rather than having it given to them. If answers can be freely obtained at any time, the RL view holds that, because time delay depreciates value, people will not wait to receive the answer. Because they value items that they are curious about more than those about which they are not curious they should seek the former more quickly. In contrast, the need for agency view holds that in order to take advantage of the opportunity to obtain the answer by their own efforts, when curious, people may wait. Consistent with this latter view, three experiments showed that even when the answer could be obtained at any time, people spontaneously waited longer to request the answer when they were curious. Furthermore, rather than requesting themore »