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  1. Abstract—In this article, we provide improvements for the architecture of Supersingular Isogeny Key Encapsulation (SIKE), a post-quantum cryptography candidate.We develop a new highly optimized Montgomery multiplication algorithm and architecture for prime fields. The multiplier occupies less area and provide better timing results than the state-of-the-art.We also provide improvements to the scheduling of SIKE in our programROM.We implement SIKE for all Round 3 NISTsecurity levels (SIKEp434 for NISTsecurity level 1, SIKEp503 for NIST security level 2, SIKEp610 for NISTsecurity level 3, and SIKEp751 for NISTsecurity level 5) on Xilinx Artix 7 and Xilinx Virtex 7 FPGAs. Our best implementation (NISTsecurity level 1) runs 38 percent faster and occupies 30 percent less hardware resources in comparison to the leading counterpart available in the literature and implementations for other security levels achieved similar improvement.
  2. This paper demonstrates an architecture for accelerating the polynomial multiplication using number theoretic transform (NTT). Kyber is one of the finalists in the third round of the NIST post-quantum cryptography standardization process. Simultaneously, the performance of NTT execution is its main challenge, requiring large memory and complex memory access pattern. In this paper, an efficient NTT architecture is presented to improve the respective computation time. We propose several optimization strategies for efficiency improvement targeting different performance requirements for various applications. Our NTT architecture, including four butterfly cores, occupies only 798 LUTs and 715 FFs on a small Artix-7 FPGA, showing more than 44% improvement compared to the best previous work. We also implement a coprocessor architecture for Kyber KEM benefiting from our high-speed NTT core to accomplish three phases of the key exchange in 9, 12, and 19 μs, respectively, operating at 200 MHz.
  3. We present an optimized implementation of the post-quantum Supersingular Isogeny Key Encapsulation (SIKE) for 32-bit ARMv7-A processors supporting NEON engine (i.e., SIMD instruction). Unlike previous SIKE implementations, finite field arithmetic is efficiently implemented in a redundant representation, which avoids carry propagation and pipeline stall. Furthermore, we adopted several state-of-the-art engineering techniques as well as hand-crafted assembly implementation for high performance. Optimized implementations are ported to Microsoft SIKE library written in “a non-redundant representation” and evaluated in high-end 32-bit ARMv7-A processors, such as ARM Cortex-A5, A7, and A15. A full key-exchange execution of SIKEp503 is performed in about 109 million cycles on ARM Cortex-A15 processors (i.e., 54.5 ms @2.0 GHz), which is about 1.58× faster than previous state-of-the-art work presented in CHES’18.
  4. Public-key cryptography based on the lattice problem is efficient and believed to be secure in a post-quantum era. In this paper, we introduce carefully-optimized implementations of Kyber encryption schemes for 64-bit ARM Cortex-A processors. Our research contribution includes optimizations for Number Theoretic Transform (NTT), noise sampling, and AES accelerator based symmetric function implementations. The proposed Kyber512 implementation on ARM64 improved previous works by 1.79×, 1.96×, and 2.44× for key generation, encapsulation, and decapsulation, respectively. Moreover, by using AES accelerator in the proposed Kyber512-90s implementation, it is improved by 8.57×, 6.94×, and 8.26× for key generation, encapsulation, and decapsulation, respectively.
  5. With the advent of large-scale quantum computers, factoring and discrete logarithm problems could be solved using the polynomialtime quantum algorithms. To ensure public-key security, a transition to quantum-resistant cryptographic protocols is required. Performance of hardware accelerators targeting different platforms and diverse application goals plays an important role in PQC candidates’ differentiation. Hardware accelerators based on FPGAs and ASICs also provide higher flexibility to create a very low area or ultra-high performance implementations at the high cost of the other. While the hardware/software codesign development of PQC schemes has already received an increasing research effort, a cost analysis of efficient pure hardware implementation is still lacking. On the other hand, since FPGA has various types of hardware resources, evaluating and making the accurate and fair comparison of hardware-based implementations against each other is very challenging. Without a common foundation, apples are compared to oranges. This paper demonstrates a pure hardware architecture for Kyber as one of the finalists in the third round of the NIST post-quantum cryptography standardization process. To enable real, realistic, and comparable evaluations in PQC schemes over hardware platforms, we compare our architecture over the ASIC platform as a common foundation showing that it outperforms the previous worksmore »in the literature.« less