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  1. ABSTRACT

    The emission process of Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) remains unknown. We investigate whether the synchrotron maser emission from relativistic shocks in a magnetar wind can explain the observed FRB properties. We perform particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of perpendicular shocks in cold pair plasmas, checking our results for consistency among three PIC codes. We confirm that a linearly polarized X-mode wave is self-consistently generated by the shock and propagates back upstream as a precursor wave. We find that at magnetizations σ ≳ 1 (i.e. ratio of Poynting flux to particle energy flux of the pre-shock flow) the shock converts a fractionmore »$f_\xi ^{\prime } \approx 7 \times 10^{-4}/\sigma ^2$ of the total incoming energy into the precursor wave, as measured in the shock frame. The wave spectrum is narrow-band (fractional width ≲1−3), with apparent but not dominant line-like features as many resonances concurrently contribute. The peak frequency in the pre-shock (observer) frame is $\omega ^{\prime \prime }_{\rm peak} \approx 3 \gamma _{\rm s | u} \omega _{\rm p}$, where γs|u is the shock Lorentz factor in the upstream frame and ωp the plasma frequency. At σ ≳ 1, where our estimated $\omega ^{\prime \prime }_{\rm peak}$ differs from previous works, the shock structure presents two solitons separated by a cavity, and the peak frequency corresponds to an eigenmode of the cavity. Our results provide physically grounded inputs for FRB emission models within the magnetar scenario.

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  2. Context. Magnetic reconnection plays a fundamental role in plasma dynamics under many different conditions, from space and astrophysical environments to laboratory devices. High-resolution in situ measurements from space missions allow naturally occurring reconnection processes to be studied in great detail. Alongside direct measurements, numerical simulations play a key role in the investigation of the fundamental physics underlying magnetic reconnection, also providing a testing ground for current models and theory. The choice of an adequate plasma model to be employed in numerical simulations, while also compromising with computational cost, is crucial for efficiently addressing the problem under study. Aims. We considermore »a new plasma model that includes a refined electron response within the “hybrid-kinetic framework” (fully kinetic protons and fluid electrons). The extent to which this new model can reproduce a full-kinetic description of 2D reconnection, with particular focus on its robustness during the nonlinear stage, is evaluated. Methods. We perform 2D simulations of magnetic reconnection with moderate guide field by means of three different plasma models: (i) a hybrid-Vlasov-Maxwell model with isotropic, isothermal electrons, (ii) a hybrid-Vlasov-Landau-fluid (HVLF) model where an anisotropic electron fluid is equipped with a Landau-fluid closure, and (iii) a full-kinetic model. Results. When compared to the full-kinetic case, the HVLF model effectively reproduces the main features of magnetic reconnection, as well as several aspects of the associated electron microphysics and its feedback onto proton dynamics. This includes the global evolution of magnetic reconnection and the local physics occurring within the so-called electron-diffusion region, as well as the evolution of species’ pressure anisotropy. In particular, anisotropy-driven instabilities (such as fire-hose, mirror, and cyclotron instabilities) play a relevant role in regulating electrons’ anisotropy during the nonlinear stage of magnetic reconnection. As expected, the HVLF model captures all these features, except for the electron-cyclotron instability.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2022
  3. Using the field–particle correlation technique, we examine the particle energization in a three-dimensional (one spatial dimension and two velocity dimensions; 1D-2V) continuum Vlasov–Maxwell simulation of a perpendicular magnetized collisionless shock. The combination of the field–particle correlation technique with the high-fidelity representation of the particle distribution function provided by a direct discretization of the Vlasov equation allows us to ascertain the details of the exchange of energy between the electromagnetic fields and the particles in phase space. We identify the velocity-space signatures of shock-drift acceleration of the ions and adiabatic heating of the electrons arising from the perpendicular collisionless shock bymore »constructing a simplified model with the minimum ingredients necessary to produce the observed energization signatures in the self-consistent Vlasov–Maxwell simulation. We are thus able to completely characterize the energy transfer in the perpendicular collisionless shock considered here and provide predictions for the application of the field–particle correlation technique to spacecraft measurements of collisionless shocks.« less
  4. ABSTRACT We study theoretical neutrino signals from core-collapse supernova (CCSN) computed using axisymmetric CCSN simulations that cover the post-bounce phase up to ∼4 s. We provide basic quantities of the neutrino signals such as event rates, energy spectra, and cumulative number of events at some terrestrial neutrino detectors, and then discuss some new features in the late phase that emerge in our models. Contrary to popular belief, neutrino emissions in the late phase are not always steady, but rather have temporal fluctuations, the vigour of which hinges on the CCSN model and neutrino flavour. We find that such temporal variations aremore »not primarily driven by proto-neutron star convection, but by fallback accretion in exploding models. We assess the detectability of these temporal variations, and find that IceCube is the most promising detector with which to resolve them. We also update fitting formulae first proposed in our previous paper for which the total neutrino energy emitted at the CCSN source is estimated from the cumulative number of events in each detector. This will be a powerful technique with which to analyse real observations, particularly for low-statistics data.« less
  5. ABSTRACT We present a comprehensive study about the phenomenological implications of the theory describing Galactic cosmic ray scattering on to magnetosonic and Alfvénic fluctuations in the GeV−PeV domain. We compute a set of diffusion coefficients from first principles, for different values of the Alfvénic Mach number and other relevant parameters associated with both the Galactic halo and the extended disc, taking into account the different damping mechanisms of turbulent fluctuations acting in these environments. We confirm that the scattering rate associated with Alfvénic turbulence is highly suppressed if the anisotropy of the cascade is taken into account. On the othermore »hand, we highlight that magnetosonic modes play a dominant role in Galactic confinement of cosmic rays up to PeV energies. We implement the diffusion coefficients in the numerical framework of the dragon code, and simulate the equilibrium spectrum of different primary and secondary cosmic ray species. We show that, for reasonable choices of the parameters under consideration, all primary and secondary fluxes at high energy (above a rigidity of $\simeq 200 \, \mathrm{GV}$) are correctly reproduced within our framework, in both normalization and slope.« less